Life Cycle of a Web Request

Life Cycle of a Web RequestViewing a web page is a simple process for a visitor. Just type the URL in a web browser like Internet Explorer or click on a hyper link in any existing web page. The web browser will display the page instantly to you.But do you know that there are several computers involved in this process? Even though it is a very complex process, we can summarize the process as shown below:1. You type the web page address (URL) in a browser. For example, consider the current page

This URL has 3 parts:

The protocol - http:
The server name -
The file name - tutorials.aspx2.

Browser communicates with a computer in internet called 'Domain Name Server' to find out the IP Address of the server (Eg: Browser establishes a connection to the web server at that IP Address. Server composes a 'Request' for the specified URL and sends the request to the web server to which it has established a connection. The web server identifies the type of the page requested. If it is an web page, then browser knows that needs some processing by the service running as part of the web server. The request is handed over to the service. The service processes the page and generates the html output. Web server sends the requested page to the browser.7. When a response is received by the browser, it displays the web page to the user who typed the URL.After you typed the URL in the browser, the request sent by the browser may go through several computers in the internet before it reaches the actual web server. You must be surprised to know that so many things happen and several computers are involved before a simple web page is displayed to you. Most of the steps in the above process happens behind the screen. A visitor need not worry about how a web page is processed and served to the browser.So, by now you must have got a better picture about how a windows application is different from a web application. When you run a windows application (desktop application), only one computer is involved in the whole process. You start an application in your computer and it runs in your computer. But when you request a web page from your home computer, the request goes through several servers in the internet and finally it reaches a computer called 'Web Server'. The actual web page is processed in the web server.

Cancellation of E-Tickets - IRCTC

e-Tickets can be cancelled on Internet at this website till Chart preparation of the train .Cancellations are notallowed at face to face Railway Counters. If the user wishes to cancel his e-Ticket, he can do so till the time ofchart preparation for the train, which is normally 4 hours before the scheduled departure of the train from the train originating station. For train starting up to 12 noon the chart preparation is usually done on the previous night. Hecan log on to and go to "Booked Tickets" link and select the ticket to be cancelled and can initiatethe cancellation by selecting the passengers to be cancelled. Cancellation would be confirmedonline and the refund would be credited back to the account used for booking as for normal Internet tickets.If there is any partial cancellation of ticket, please ensure that a fresh e-reservation slip (Electronic Reservation Slip) isprinted separately as done for the original ticket.

To take you step by step and familiarize you with the procedurefor canceling of e-tickets, please click HERE Cancellation of e-Tickets before chart preparation of the train:

If a confirmed ticket is cancelled more than 24 hrs before the scheduled departure of the train, flatcancellation charges shall be deducted @ Rs.70/- for AC First Class/Executive Class, Rs.60/- for AC 2Tier/AC 3 Tier/First Class/AC Chair car, Rs.40/- for Sleeper Class and Rs.20/- for Second Class.Cancellation charges are per passenger. If a confirmed ticket is cancelled within 24 hrs and upto 4 hours before the scheduled departure of the train,cancellation charges shall be 25% of the fare subject to the minimum flat rate mentioned in the above clause. Less than 4 hours before the schedule departure of the train upto chart preparation of the train, 50% of thefare paid subject to the minimum cancellation charges. Note the Chart preparation time is the time for the chart preparation from the Train Originating Station orfrom the Previous chart Preparation station.

Cancellation of e-Tickets after the preparation of Reservation charts:

For any claims on e-Tickets to be cancelled after the preparation of Reservation charts, the user has to send anemail at the earliest possible time (within 30 days) to giving full details of the ticket and statingthe claim, which would then be processed by IRCTC with the Railway administration offline and refunds assanctioned by the Railway administration would be credited back to the user's account. Refund claims under above clause may require at least 60 days or more for processing.

For Tatkal Tickets Booked as e-Tickets:

A flat refund of 25% of total fare charged on ticket, excluding Tatkal Charges is granted on cancellation ofconfirmed Tatkal tickets, which are cancelled up to 24 hrs. before the schedule departure of train. No refund onconfirmed Tatkal tickets when cancelled within 24 hrs.of the schedule departure of train. For contingent cancellationand waitlisted Tatkal ticket cancellations, charges will be deducted as per existing Railway rules.

Cancellation of e-tickets in case of trains cancelled:

If the train is marked as "CANCELLED" in PRS due to breaches, floods, accidents etc. full refund is permissible incase the ticket is cancelled within three days of the scheduled departure of the train. In case of e-tickets, suchcancellations can be done by the customer through Internet

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