NRE, NRO (Non Resident Bank Accounts) - Check What Is Suitable For You?

We often hear about the two types of Non-Resident bank accounts – NRE and NRO. We also keep hearing about the restrictions each has, like restriction on repatriation. This article clarifies the difference between NRE and NRO accounts, and explains their characteristics.

All Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) face a dilemma at the beginning of their NRI status – What kind of bank account should they maintain back home in India? Should it be an NRO account, or should it be an NRE account? Can you have both? What can each be used for? Let’s understand these things in detail.

    Non-Resident External (NRE) Account

An NRE account is a Rupee denominated account. That is, funds in an NRE account are maintained in Indian Rupees. It can be a savings, current or a fixed / term deposit account.

NRE accounts can be opened by NRIs.

Funds can be repatriated from an NRE account. This means that the funds can be freely sent to any other country.

An NRE account can contain funds remitted from abroad, or obtained from another NRE / FCNR account maintained in India.

Funds can be transferred from an NRE account to an NRO account without any restriction.

An NRE account can be held jointly, provided the other person is also an NRI.

The interest earned on deposits in an NRE account is exempt from tax in the hands of the NRI.

A resident power of attorney holder can not open an NRE account on behalf of an NRI. But the resident power of attorney holder can make local, rupee payments on behalf of the NRI.

Nomination is allowed for NRE accounts.

If the NRI holding the NRE account returns to India and becomes a resident of India, the NRE account is converted into a regular resident account.

    Non-Resident Ordinary (NRO) Account

An NRO account is a Rupees denominated account. That is, funds in an NRE account are maintained in Indian Rupees. It can be a savings, current or a fixed / term deposit account.

NRO accounts can be opened by NRIs. Regular bank accounts of a person, who becomes an NRI, also get converted into NRO accounts.

Funds can not be repatriated from an NRO account. These funds have to be used only for local (within India) payments in Indian Rupees.

An NRO account can only contain funds received from within India.

Funds can not be transferred from an NRO account to an NRE account.

An NRO account can be held jointly with another NRI or with a resident Indian.

The interest earned on deposits in an NRO account is taxable in the hands of the NRI as per the applicable income tax slab rates.

A resident power of attorney holder can not open an NRO account on behalf of an NRI. But the resident power of attorney holder can make local, rupee payments on behalf of the NRI.

Nomination is allowed for NRO accounts.

If the NRI holding the NRO account returns to India and becomes a resident of India, the NRO account is converted into a regular resident account.

A quick comparison between NRE and NRO accounts

Non-Resident External (NRE) Account Non-Resident Ordinary (NRO) Account
Currency Rupee denominated Rupee denominated
Type Savings, Current or a Fixed / Term Deposit Savings, Current or a Fixed / Term Deposit
Who can open? NRI NRI, Resident before becoming an NRI
Is repatriation allowed? Yes Usually no
What can be the source of funds? Funds remitted from abroad, Funds from another NRE / FCNR account Funds received from within India
Can funds be transferred to another account? Funds can be transferred from an NRE account to an NRO / NRE / Resident account Funds can be transferred from an NRO account to an NRO / Resident account
Can it be opened jointly with an NRI? Yes Yes
Can it be opened jointly with a resident? No Yes
What is the income tax treatment of the interest earned? Tax free Taxed as per applicable slab rate
Can power of attorney holder open the account? No No
Can power of attorney holder operate the account? Yes, can make local rupee payments Yes, can make local rupee payments
Is nomination allowed? Yes Yes
What is the status of the account when NRI returns to India for good? Converted to resident account Converted to resident account

Ramzan - The Holy day for Muslims and its Significance


Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic Calendar Year, a month when the "Holy Koran or Quran" was revealed up from heaven by Allah for human beings in 615 AD,as a guidance and declaration.

Observance of Fasts

Islamic Calendar is based on the Lunar calendar (based on the moon and not the sun) The practice of fasting during Ramadan is called "Sawm". To start fasting one has to sight the crescent of the new moon with ones' naked eyes. It is a period of worship and contemplation. Muslims usually go to the Masjid and spend hours studying the Quran and recite a special prayer called the Taraweeh (Night Prayer) in addition to the 5 daily prayers.

Significance of Ramadan

Throughout the world, Muslims observe the Ramadan month by fasting and through increased concentration for purification of soul to increase closeness with God. It is a period of worship and contemplation. On the 27th evening, Muslims celebrate the Laylat-al-Qadr (Night of Power) with the believe that on this day in 610 AD, the Holy Quran was revealed providing guidance, teaching, direction to all and also judging between wrong and right. Moreover this day is believed to have influenced the course of the year.

Constraints During Ramadan

Strict constraints are placed. Smoking, drinking, meat and sexual relations are forbidden during fasting. However, children,elderly, soldiers and the incurable sick are exempted. Telling of lies, slander, false oath, betrayal are considered most offensive during Ramadan and can destroy the goodness of fasting.

Steve Jobs Resigns As Apple CEO - Tim To Become Successor

Awesome. Magical. Incredible. Steve Jobs has a way with words, but words fail to describe his performance as Apple’s chief executive.

So let’s look at the numbers. During Jobs’ second stint as CEO of the company he founded, Apple’s shares have risen 6,681.8%. Quarterly sales have grown to $28.6 billion from $1.73 billion.

And earnings? There were no earnings when Jobs took over the money-losing Mac maker in September 1997. Jump forward fourteen years. Apple posted net income of $7.8 billion for the quarter ending in June.

Not a bad way to go. Though while Apple’s board announced Jobs has resigned as CEO on Wednesday, he’s hardly gone. Jobs’ successor, Tim Cook, will have a big job to fill, but he won’t have to fill it all at once. Jobs will get a new role as the company’s chairman. The team Jobs assembled remains as well.

Their names and faces are well known to Apple followers. Scott Forstall, the vice president in charge of Apple’s mobile software; Apple marketing chief Phil Schiller; and Craig Federighi, who is in charge of Apple’s desktop software engineering, have all shared the spotlight with Jobs during the company’s public presentations.

While the way Apple works won’t change abruptly, it’s definitely a culture in transition. “Previously they’ve been working collaboratively with one person as the ultimate decision maker,” says Charles Golvin, principal analyst at Forrester Research. “Now they’re going to be be working more as a collaborative.”

“They were in pretty dismal straights, they didn’t have cash, they had wasted a lot of money on products like Newton, they had gone through a few different chief executives, they were largely in disarray,” Van Baker, a research vice president at tech tracker Gartner says.

Jobs went on to transform Apple in a drama that began with a desperate deal with arch-rival Microsoft in 1997 for a $150 million investment and ended with Apple assuming the mantle of the world’s most valuable technology company. Along the way Jobs introduced the iPod, the iPhone, the iPad, and fresh iterations of the Macintosh computer he first introduced in 1984. ”It’s just astounding,” Baker says.

Through it all, Jobs evolved, too, from mercurial outsider into a turtleneck clad icon who seemed as interested in molding Apple — and its product pipeline — as pitching its next product. ”We’re at least a couple of years away from seeing what Apple really looks like and what their products really look like without the influence of Steve Jobs,” said Forrester’s Golvin.

Jobs, of course, has been out on medical leave since January, promising only to “return as soon as I can.” (See “The Medical Mismeasure Of Steve Jobs“) The medical leave was Jobs’ third since 2004. While Jobs surprised the company’s fans by introducing the company’s new iPad, March 2, and a new suite of online services dubbed ‘iCloud,’ at Apple’s annual developer’s conference June 6, it wasn’t the return to active duty that had been hoped for.

“I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple’s CEO, I would be the first to let you know,”Jobs wrote in a letter to Apple’s board of directors and the Apple community released Thursday. “Unfortunately, that day has come.”

It can’t come as a surprise, however. While nominally responsible for Apple’s worldwide sales and operations, Cook has run the company on a day-to-day basis during Jobs’ absences. Unnamed sources told The Wall Street JournalJobs will remain actively involved with the company.

Apple shares fell $19.37 , or 5.15%, to $356.89 in after-hours trading Wednesday.

Letter from Steve Jobs:

CUPERTINO, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–To the Apple Board of Directors and the Apple Community:

I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple’s CEO, I would be the first to let you know. Unfortunately, that day has come.

I hereby resign as CEO of Apple. I would like to serve, if the Board sees fit, as Chairman of the Board, director and Apple employee.

As far as my successor goes, I strongly recommend that we execute our succession plan and name Tim Cook as CEO of Apple.

I believe Apple’s brightest and most innovative days are ahead of it. And I look forward to watching and contributing to its success in a new role.

I have made some of the best friends of my life at Apple, and I thank you all for the many years of being able to work alongside you.


Why do we say bless you when someone sneezes out loud....

Many people have become accustomed to saying "bless you" or "gesundheit" when someone sneezes. No one says anything when someone coughs, blows their nose or burps, so why do sneezes get special treatment? What do those phrases actually mean, anyway?

Wishing someone well after they sneeze probably originated thousands of years ago. The Romans would say "Jupiter preserve you" or "Salve," which meant "good health to you," and the Greeks would wish each other "long life." The phrase "God bless you" is attributed to Pope Gregory the Great, who uttered it in the sixth century during a bubonic plague epidemic (sneezing is an obvious symptom of one form of the plague).

The exchangeable term "gesundheit" comes from Germany, and it literally means "health." The idea is that a sneeze typically precedes illness. It entered the English language in the early part of the 20th century, brought to the United States by German-speaking immigrants.

Virtually every country around the globe has its own way of wishing sneezers well. People in Arabic countries say, "Alhamdulillah," which means, "praise be to God." Hindus say, "Live!" or "Live well!" Some countries have special sneezing responses for children. In Russia, after children are given the traditional response, "bud zdorov" ("be healthy"), they are also told "rosti bolshoi" ("grow big"). When a child sneezes in China, he or she will hear "bai sui," which means, "may you live 100 years."

For the most part, the various sneeze responses originated from ancient superstitions. Some people believed that a sneeze causes the soul to escape the body through the nose. Saying "bless you" would stop the devil from claiming the person's freed soul. Others believed the opposite: that evil spirits use the sneeze as an opportunity to enter a person's body. There was also the misconception that the heart momentarily stops during a sneeze (it doesn't), and that saying "bless you" was a way of welcoming the person back to life.

We now know that sneezing is a reflex action and is most often the sign of something relatively benign, such as a cold or allergy. A sneeze also can be provoked by being outside in the sunlight or from smelling a strong odor. Still, we persist in the custom of saying "bless you" or "gesundheit," mainly out of habit and common courtesy.

Indian Economy - GDP to triple by 2020 : Dun & Bradstreet

India is all set become a $5.6-trillion economy by 2020, according to research firm Dun & Bradstreet, which has predicted a three-fold jump in the country's GDP from $1.7 trillion in the last fiscal on the back of rapid investment and growing consumer expenditure. "Indian economy will become a $5.6 trillion economy by fiscal 2020, at current market price, from the $1.73 trillion in fiscal 2010-11," Dun & Bradstreet India Senior Economist Arun Singh said.

The rate of investment, consumer expenditure and infrastructure spending will be the driving force behind the country's economic growth over the next 10 years, he said, adding that these conclusions are part of a D&B report -- titled, 'India 2020' -- which is scheduled to be released tomorrow.

The share of discretionary spending is projected to increase considerably to 72 per cent of private consumption expenditure from around 60 per cent in FY'10.

Besides, share of the services sector is expected to surge from 57.3 per cent of the GDP in FY'10 to 61.8 per cent in FY'20.

Another major contributor to the growth would be rapid investment in the infrastructure area. Infrastructure sector spending is expected to rise to 12.1 per cent of the GDP by FY'20 from around 7 per cent of the GDP in FY'11.

In terms of regions, eight states -- Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh -- will contribute 71 per cent of the total GDP in the next 10 years, as compared to 66 per cent in FY'10.

Further, the report said Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh will be among the most developed states in the country by 2020 and would together contribute 32 per cent to the overall GDP.

The BIMAROU states (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa & Uttar Pradesh) are also expected to contribute significantly to India's growth story during the current decade.

The contribution of BIMAROU states will be around 24 per cent of the GDP by FY'20, as compared to 21 per cent during FY'10, Singh said.

Notably, four of the five BIMAROU states are expected to see a double-digit average growth over the current decade.

Top 5 cool, handy and compact laptops for the year 2011.

Bangalore: In this era of technology laptops have become an integral part of our lives. And modern day tools have contributed to bring down our laptops to smaller and thinner in package.

With variety of vendors flooding into the market with creative shapes and sizes of laptops, are you in dilemma in getting your hands on the best thinnest laptops in the market?

1. Macbook Pro:

Apple's MacBook Pro gives a huge edge over other thin-and-light laptops in competition. It is available in 13 inch, 15 inch and 17 inch respectively.

The 13 inch seems as the lightest of all and comes with dual core Intel core i5 and i7 processors. It also features 4GB RAM, 320GB HDD with Intel HD Graphics 3000. It is available at a price of 69,900.

2. Sony Vaio:

If someone comes close to the sleekness of Apple then it has to be Sony. Sony Vaio is one laptop that comes with killer looks, its light and thin look can make every gadget freak the eye balls roll. The laptops comes pre-loaded with a genuine Windows 7 operating System and is powered by the i3/i5/i7 intel core 380M processor (2.53GHz). It is available in different colors which gives plenty of options for our consumers. The prices start from RS.33, 000.

3. Dell Vostro v 13:

The ultra portability feature in Dell Vostro v 13 makes it the ultimate hub for businessmen. It features 13.3" inch (1366x768 pixels) LED-backlit HD and is built with aluminium body, powered by Intel Ultra Low voltage processor.

4. Asus U36J:

Asus U36J, which portrays a 13.3" inch display screen is powered by Intel. It also features Nvidia Graphics, 2GB RAM, 500GB HDD and runs on OS windows 7. It is available at a price at 56, 699.

5. Samsung series 9:

Samsung series 9 comes in 13.3" inch, making it most ultra thin durable laptop ever presented by Samsung. Although Samsung has not made its mark felt in the laptop market, this piece from Samsung truly captures the thinnest category. This 13.3" inch super bright plus display weight less than 3 lbs. The crystal-clear visuals, vibrant colors and smooth high-definition (HD) makes video playback truly enjoyable. It is powered by Intel Core i5 processor and Intel HD GT2 integrated graphics. The Samsung Series 9 Laptop is now available for 1, 00,990 in India.

20 Top Best Places/Cities To Live In United States Of America For The Year 2011

1. Louisville, CO


Courtesy: Brad Kemp/City of Louisville

Top 100 rank: 1 
Population: 18,400 

This sunny, lively mountain town is safe (crime rates are among the lowest in Colorado) and easy to navigate. Lots of good jobs in tech, telecom, aerospace, clean energy, and health care can be found right in Louisville, and more are on their way. And there's world-class mountain biking, hiking, and skiing in the nearby Rockies. Real estate prices have barely budged since 2005, yet a typical three-bedroom house here still runs less than a comparable one in nearby Boulder. Its schools consistently rank among the top three academically in the Denver area. -Jessica Levine

2. Milton, MA    


Courtesy: City of Milton

Top 100 rank: 2

Population: 27,000  

Milton is just minutes from the jobs and culture of Boston but feels in places like a country getaway. Tree-lined streets are dotted with historic homes. Single-family home prices have remained essentially unchanged since the market's peak in 2005. One major reason for this stability is the outstanding school system, which boasts six brand-new buildings and offers such rich opportunities as a French immersion program that begins in elementary school. The downside: high taxes. -Ismat Sarah Mangla

3. Solon, OH


Courtesy: City of Solon

Top 100 rank: 3 
Population: 23,300  

Solon is a small town with a large tax base: Major employers include Nestle, L'Oreal, and industrial equipment maker Swagelok. Solon punches above its weight in other areas too. Health care? The world-renowned Cleveland Clinic has a family health center here. Culture? Solon has its own philharmonic orchestra. Schools? Solon was the highest-achieving district in Ohio last year. And the student body is diverse: 11% of residents are black, 10% Asian. -Anne C. Lee

4. Leesburg, VA


Courtesy: Pieter van Noordennen

Top 100 rank: 4 
Population: 42,600  

Leesburg, which snuggles up to the Virginia-Maryland border, offers proximity to plenty of good jobs not just in government but also in defense contracting, consulting, and technology. True, commutes can be abysmal. But residents say that the tradeoff to live in this pretty town, which has seen more history than a Ken Burns film, is worth it. Many antebellum red-brick buildings still stand, now filled with restaurants and art galleries. On the negative side, there are some run-down neighborhoods. 

5. Papillion, NE


Courtesy: City of Papillion

Top 100 rank: 5 
Population: 18,900  

Nebraska, sexy? You'd better believe it. With agriculture booming, towns here are showing employment and housing-market strength that's the envy of the coasts.

Papillion is no exception; its economy benefits from a broad base of industries, including health care and transportation, in nearby Omaha.

In June, energy company Black Hills Corp. moved its local headquarters — and 130 jobs — here. There are also excellent schools, a five-month-old AAA baseball stadium, a new retail and restaurant complex, and loads of green space. -Sarah Max

6. Hanover, NH


Courtesy: Pieter van Noordennen

Top 100 rank: 6 
Population: 8,600  

Dartmouth College, located in this hamlet near the White Mountains, gives Hanover an economic, social, and cultural advantage rare in towns so far from major urban centers. Unemployment in town is about half the statewide average (Dartmouth and its top-rated medical center provide over 12,000 jobs). Graduate programs spin out entrepreneurial start-ups in almost every industry. Housing — which ranges from century-old Victorians to new construction — isn't cheap, however. And students account for some fraternity-style rowdiness. -P.N.

7. Liberty, MO


Courtesy: Vanessa Richardson

Top 100 rank: 7 
Population: 29,100  

Known to tourists as the town where Jesse James' gang staged its first daytime bank robbery — and where Mormon prophet Joseph Smith languished in jail before fleeing west — Liberty today is a charming place with a quick commute to Kansas City's mix of jobs in telecom, engineering, and life sciences. The school district is consistently ranked as one of Missouri's best; student musicians play in a new state-of-the-art facility, and budding broadcast journalists have their own public-access channel. William Jewell College, with its lovely hilltop campus overlooking Liberty, lets residents take advantage of many cultural offerings. -Vanessa Richardson

8. Middleton, WI


Courtesy: Ismat Sarah Mangla

Top 100 rank:8 
Population: 17,400  

Middleton is right next to state capitol Madison and boasts 17,000 jobs right in town (employers include pharmaceutical company PPD and Electronic Theater Controls, the world's biggest theater lighting company). Its walkable downtown has plenty of good restaurants, shops, and quirky attractions (National Mustard Museum, anyone?). Even its developments are cool: a Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired mixed-use project thoughtfully blends homes and businesses. And Middleton offers residents lots of parks and trails — including a new free splash park. -I.M.

9. Mukilteo, WA


Courtesy: Mukilteo Chamber of Commerce

Top 100 rank: 9 
Population: 20,300  

As West Coast towns go, Mukilteo (pronounced MUCK-ill-TEE-oh) is in good economic shape. Bank-owned homes represent a small fraction of houses on the market, and area employers, including Boeing, are hiring again. It has affordable homes by Seattle standards, good schools, and a killer location right on Puget Sound. And the town is spending to beef up its attractions: A new 29,000-square-foot community center debuted in February, and historic Lighthouse Park recently got a makeover. -S.M.

10. Chanhassen, MN


Courtesy: Bob Firth

Top 100 rank: 10 
Population: 23,000  

Despite some 2011 budgetary brouhahas in the state of Minnesota, Chanhassen has plenty going for it — including good jobs right within its borders (manufacturing and technology company Emerson is based here), evening diversion (the Chanhassen Dinner Theater is the nation's oldest and largest), and nature galore (34 parks, 11 lakes, and the enormous Minnesota Landscape Arboretum). The town's new state-of-the-art high school has racked up some national awards in just its second year. -I.M.

11. Sharon, MA


Courtesy: Town of Sharon

Top 100 rank: 11 
Population: 17,500  

Halfway between Boston and Providence, R.I., Sharon was settled way back in 1673; a church in town has a bell made by Paul Revere.

It has long been a popular summer destination thanks to Lake Massapoag, which draws swimmers and boaters. For a small town, Sharon is diverse, with many institutions serving the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim communities.

While there aren't many jobs in town, residents who wish to commute to Boston have easy access via commuter rail. -Noelia de la Cruz

12. Farmington, UT


Courtesy: Leigh Swain Isaacson/Farmington City

Top 100 rank: 12 

This friendly town near the Great Salt Lake lies 20 minutes from Salt Lake City's job and cultural opportunities. More Small Town USA than suburb, Farmington is safe and quiet. That's not to say it's no fun: in the center of town is Lagoon, a 125-year-old amusement park that attracts visitors from all over Utah. The town has a mix of expensive turn-of-the-century houses and more affordable homes; a typical three-bedroom ran around $180,000 in mid-2011. What's more, Farmington's taxes are low, yet the town is in excellent financial shape. -Angela Wu

13. Johnston, IA


Courtesy: Sarah Max

Top 100 rank: 13 
Population: 15,500  

Agriculture is booming, and so is this small town in farm country: It has doubled in population over the past decade. Seed company Pioneer Hi-Bred and Iowa Public Television are both headquartered here, and the Camp Dodge military base provides stability. Architecture buffs take note: there's a private residence designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in town. Des Moines is a commutable 14 miles away. And 10 miles north of here is Saylorville Lake, a popular summertime spot for boating and fishing.-N.D.

14. Arden Hills, MN


Courtesy: City of Arden Hills

Top 100 rank: 14 
Population: 9,600  

More people work than live in this town 10 miles from the Twin Cities. The families that do call Arden Hills home are attracted by a top-rated school district and a trail system that connects parks, playgrounds, and lakes. The town is known for its strict tree preservation laws, which means that even the newest subdivisions have so many mature trees that they seem like long-established neighborhoods. On the negative side, there's a Superfund site in the area — but the EPA estimates that the cleanup process is almost complete. -A.W.

15. Sammamish, WA


Courtesy: City of Sammamish

Top 100 rank: 15 
Population: 46,700  

If you're looking for the Pacific Northwest ideal — snow-capped mountains and scenic lakes — Sammamish might be for you. Puget Sound and ski resorts are both an hour from this affluent Seattle suburb. High-tech employers in the area include Boeing, Amazon, and Microsoft, which is headquartered just 15 minutes away. Incorporated just over a decade ago, Sammamish still doesn't have a real center where the community can gather. But local officials are working on a new downtown with retail, recreation, and town services. 

16. Acton, MA


Courtesy: Mark Hald

Top 100 rank: 16 
Population: 22,000  

Thought it's easily accessible to Boston by commuter rail, Acton feels very much like its own place.

It's a picture-perfect New England town, complete with Revolutionary War landmarks, historic homes, and lots of open space.One of Acton's biggest draws is its progressive regional school district, which consistently ranks among the best in the state.

Major area employers include IBM's largest software campus and a branch of Cisco Systems, located in the nearby towns of Littleton and Boxborough, respectively.-N.D.

17. Montville, NJ


Courtesy: Joshua Paul

Top 100 rank: 17 

This affluent town is in Morris County, home to many big employers. More than 50 Fortune 500 companies have headquarters, major facilities, or offices in the region, including AT&T, Pfizer, Honeywell, and Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals. True, Montville lacks a proper downtown. But its location — it's an hour away from New York City, the beaches of the Jersey shore, and the Mountain Creek Ski Resort — help to make up for that. -N.D.

18. Newcastle, WA


Courtesy: City of Newcastle

Top 100 rank: 18 
Population: 10,200  

The volunteer spirit is alive and well in this former coal-mining town 13 miles from Seattle. Despite serious budget cuts that threatened the city's summer 2011 events, local businesses and citizens offered time and cash to keep the community's concerts and fireworks afloat. There's a 350-acre golf course here, not to mention 12 parks; the 3,115-acre Cougar Mountain Wildland Park is right next door. Newcastle residents can jump on a trail in the city and end up in the "Issaquah Alps." Tech employers such as Microsoft are almost as easily accessible. -A.W.

19. Castle Rock, CO


Courtesy: Town of Castle Rock

Top 100 rank: 19 
Population: 37,200  

With roots in mining and railroads, this affluent town offers an updated taste of the Old West. It boasts an historic downtown area, 265 acres of parks, and 44 miles of trails. Douglas County Rodeo comes to town each summer, complete with a fair and parade. And there are bargains to be had at the nearby outlet mall. The local economy is improving too. A manufacturer for wind turbine parts recently moved to Castle Rock, and officials have earmarked an economic development assistance fund of $5 million to bring new businesses to town. -A.W.

20. Superior, CO


Courtesy: Town of Superior

Top 100 rank: 20 
Population: 12,900  

This former coal-mining town is a cyclist's dream. Superior's stunning mountain roads draw hundreds to the annual Morgul Classic bike race, and the town recently built a BMX bike park. Homes are more affordable here than in nearby Boulder, but residents have access to the same high-performing school district. Many of the city's well-educated and affluent residents work in the tech sector, at Denver-area employers such as Oracle. 

The India Independence Movement & Significance of Independence Day

On August 15 comes a day which is of great significance and importance in every Indian’s life. We celebrate this day to honor our Country, its people and the rich heritage and culture it has. We remember those who sacrificed their life for us and our Country. Who didn’t give up in the face of adversities and who set a principal for all future generations to come. On this day people from all religions come together as one, be it Hindus, Muslims or Christians. This is Our Independence Day.
The struggle for Indian independence began with the colonialization of India by Europeans. They came to India as traders but over the period of time they rose to power took control of Indian affairs. British occupied most parts of India whereas Portuguese and French also had their influence on few places The first uprising which is noted in the history of independence of India took place in 1857. This first war of Indian independence, was termed as a mutiny by the British. Although not a success, this revolt sowed the seed for a new force, which was to take this struggle to its rightful end. As British oppression strengthened so did the urge to attain the freedom from it. This urge found voice in form of many great leaders such as Subhash Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Khudiram Bose, Ram Prasad Bismil,Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel to name a few. These great patriots along with a lot unnamed freedom fighters sacrificed their lives for the cause of the nation. Independence from the British rule was the sole aim of their lives. This dream of millions of Indians was realized when finally India got freedom on August 15, 1947.

For every Indian, it signifies growth, prosperity, peace and unity. The colours of our Flag are based on just these principals and the blue wheel in the middle tells us to move forward with courage and honesty. No doubt the recent terrorist attack has dampened the celebrations of the country, but our spirits are forever high and being Indians, we have the safety of all our brothers too in mind.

We are known as the Developing Country, which is good as we are open to change and flexible in our measures. To lead the second largely populated country with many religions, cultures and move forward is not an easy task. Yet we are achieving it with success.

Yes there are times when fights occur, mishaps take place. But all five fingers are not alike. When in one house, the family members are not in agreement over certain issues, then in a country so vastly populated with 26 states, more than 300 languages, differences will certainly crop up, but we keep in mind everyone’s needs and move on.

We love our country and everything connected to it and are aware that many changes still have to b e implemented. The selflessness with which Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Bhagat Singh fought for the freedom, similarly we to need to fight the chains of terrorism, corruption and fights taking place in the name of religion.

Come let us celebrate this independence Day with new hopes and aspirations. Lets adopt the motto,’Tum Chalo To Hindustan Chale’. Lets move forward together, lets motivate each other to achieve the impossible. When our elders could do it then and that to without non-violence, then why cant we?

We can and we will because, this is our Country, our source of joy and pride.

Aarakshan Controversy - Governments trying to cash out from Movie Industry

The governments of three states have banned the screening of the film Aarakshan for two months and this has saddened Amitabh Bachchan, who is playing an important role in it. He is wondering how this restriction will solve the problem after two months.

"UP (Uttar Pradesh), Punjab and today Andhra Pradesh have given notice to ban the film and not allow it to be projected for another two months - a provision given administratively to each government," Big B posted on his blog.

"After that period is over, the film can have exhibition and ... the producer is not obliged to carry out any changes that the administration in governance may have found, because the film technically and legally has found certification without a single cut," Big B further added.

"What good will two months do then in the law and order situation - the reason given for the non-showing of this product ! So the same film is a law and order problem now and today, but shall not be a problem after two months?

"You will destroy the commerce of the producer and all those that have invested time, blood, tears and money into this film, when even after waiting for 2 months there cannot be any change that will be accepted to be done!," he added.

The film, also starring Deepika Padukone, Saif Ali Khan, Manoj Bajpayee and Prateik in pivotal roles, released in the rest of the country today.

Aarakshan deals with the sensitive issue of reservation and it landed in trouble after facing protests from the Republican Party of India (RPI) and several groups expressing concern over its content in anticipation of anti-Dalit comment.

Even though Prakash Jha, the director, agreed to make "appropriate cuts" in the movie, the two-month ban still continues on the film in the three states.

The Supreme Court Friday will also hear a petition by Jha seeking the lifting of the ban on his film in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

The series of events has also put a question mark on the clearance given by the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) to any movie and the 68-year-old megastar feels such bans bring only disrespect to the body.

"What is the need then of the Censor Board, a statutory body instituted by you, the legislatures and Parliamentarians that govern this land. You nominate what you believe, to disbelieve what you nominate!! Better to remove it altogether then rather than give it disrespect," he posted.

Overview Of Asp.Net MVC 3 (Model View Controller Design Pattern)

ASP.NET MVC 3 builds on ASP.NET MVC 1 and 2, adding great features that both simplify your code and allow deeper extensibility. This topic provides an
overview of many of the new features that are included in this release, organized into the following sections:

Extensible Scaffolding with MvcScaffold integration

The new Scaffolding system makes it easier to pick up and start using productively if you’re entirely new to the framework, and to automate common development tasks if you’re experienced and already know what you’re doing.

This is supported by new NuGet scaffolding package called MvcScaffolding. The term “Scaffolding” is used by many software technologies to mean “quickly generating a basic outline of your software that you can then edit and customize”. The scaffolding package we’re creating for ASP.NET MVC is greatly beneficial in several scenarios:

  • If you’re learning ASP.NET MVC for the first time, because it gives you a fast way to get some useful, working code, that you can then edit and adapt according to your needs. It saves you from the trauma of looking at a blank page and having no idea where to start!
  • If you know ASP.NET MVC well and are now exploring some new add-on technology such as an object-relational mapper, a view engine, a testing library, etc., because the creator of that technology may have also created a scaffolding package for it.
  • If your work involves repeatedly creating similar classes or files of some sort, because you can create custom scaffolders that output test fixtures, deployment scripts, or whatever else you need. Everyone on your team can use your custom scaffolders, too.

Other features in MvcScaffolding include:

  • Support for C# and VB projects
  • Support for the Razor and ASPX view engines
  • Supports scaffolding into ASP.NET MVC areas and using custom view layouts/masters
  • You can easily customize the output by editing T4 templates
  • You can add entirely new scaffolders using custom PowerShell logic and custom T4 templates. These (and any custom parameters you’ve given them) automatically appear in the console tab-completion list.
  • You can get NuGet packages containing additional scaffolders for different technologies (e.g., there’s a proof-of-concept one for LINQ to SQL now) and mix and match them together

The ASP.NET MVC 3 Tools Update includes great Visual Studio support for this scaffolding system, such as:

  • Add Controller Dialog now supports full automatic scaffolding of Create, Read, Update, and Delete controller actions and corresponding views. By default, this scaffolds data access code using EF Code First.
  • Add Controller Dialog supports extensible scaffolds via NuGet packages such as MvcScaffolding. This allows plugging in custom scaffolds into the dialog which would allow you to create scaffolds for other data access technologies such as NHibernate or even JET with ODBCDirect if you’re so inclined!

For more information about Scaffolding in ASP.NET MVC 3, see the following resources:

HTML 5 Project Templates

The New Project dialog includes a checkbox enable HTML 5 versions of project templates. These templates leverage Modernizr 1.7 to provide compatibility support for HTML 5 and CSS 3 in down-level browsers.

The Razor View Engine

ASP.NET MVC 3 comes with a new view engine named Razor that offers the following benefits:

  • Razor syntax is clean and concise, requiring a minimum number of keystrokes.
  • Razor is easy to learn, in part because it's based on existing languages like C# and Visual Basic.
  • Visual Studio includes IntelliSense and code colorization for Razor syntax.
  • Razor views can be unit tested without requiring that you run the application or launch a web server.

Some new Razor features include the following:

  • @model
    syntax for specifying the type being passed to the view.
  • @* *@
    comment syntax.
  • The ability to specify defaults (such as layoutpage) once for an entire site.
  • The Html.Raw method for displaying text without HTML-encoding it.
  • Support for sharing code among multiple views (_viewstart.cshtml or _viewstart.vbhtml files).

Razor also includes new HTML helpers, such as the following:

  • Chart. Renders a chart, offering the same features as the chart control in ASP.NET 4.
  • WebGrid. Renders a data grid, complete with paging and sorting functionality.
  • Crypto . Uses hashing algorithms to create properly salted and hashed passwords.
  • WebImage. Renders an image.
  • WebMail. Sends an email message.

For more information about Razor, see the following resources:

Support for Multiple View Engines

The Add View dialog box in ASP.NET MVC 3 lets you choose the view engine you want to work with, and the New Project dialog box lets you specify the default view engine for a project. You can choose the Web Forms view engine (ASPX), Razor, or an open-source view engine such as Spark, NHaml, or NDjango.

Controller Improvements

Global Action Filters

Sometimes you want to perform logic either before an action method runs or after an action method runs. To support this, ASP.NET MVC 2 provided action filters. Action filters are custom attributes that provide a declarative means to add pre-action and post-action behavior to specific controller action methods. However, in some cases you might want to specify pre-action or post-action behavior that applies to all action methods. MVC 3 lets you specify global filters by adding them to the GlobalFilters collection. For more information about global action filters, see the following

New "ViewBag" Property

MVC 2 controllers support a ViewData property that enables you to pass data to a view template using a late-bound dictionary API. In MVC 3, you can also use somewhat simpler syntax with the ViewBag property to accomplish the same purpose. For example, instead of writingViewData["Message"]="text", you can write ViewBag.Message="text". You do not need to define any strongly-typed classes to use
the ViewBag property. Because it is a dynamic property, you can instead just get or set properties and it will resolve them dynamically at run time. Internally, ViewBag properties are stored as name/value pairs in the ViewData dictionary. (Note: in most pre-release versions of MVC 3, the ViewBag property was named the ViewModel property.)

New "ActionResult" Types

The following ActionResult types and corresponding helper methods are new or enhanced in MVC 3:

  • HttpNotFoundResult. Returns a 404 HTTP status code to the client.
  • RedirectResult. Returns a temporary redirect (HTTP 302 status code) or a permanent redirect (HTTP 301 status code), depending on a Boolean parameter. In
    conjunction with this change, the Controller class
    now has three methods for performing permanent redirects: RedirectPermanent, RedirectToRoutePermanent, and RedirectToActionPermanent. These methods return an instance of RedirectResult with the Permanent property set to true.
  • HttpStatusCodeResult
    . Returns a user-specified HTTP status code.

JavaScript and Ajax Improvements

By default, Ajax and validation helpers in MVC 3 use an unobtrusive JavaScript approach. Unobtrusive JavaScript avoids injecting inline JavaScript into HTML. This makes your HTML smaller and less cluttered, and makes it easier to swap out or customize JavaScript libraries. Validation helpers in MVC 3 also use the jQueryValidate plugin by default. If you want MVC 2 behavior, you can disable unobtrusive JavaScript using a web.config file setting. For more information about JavaScript and Ajax improvements, see the following resources:

Client-Side Validation Enabled by Default

In earlier versions of MVC, you need to explicitly call the Html.EnableClientValidation method from a view in order to enable client-side
validation. In MVC 3 this is no longer required because client-side validation is enabled by default. (You can disable this using a setting in the web.config file.)

In order for client-side validation to work, you still need to reference the appropriate jQuery and jQuery Validation libraries in your site. You can host those libraries on your own server or reference them from a content delivery network (CDN) like the CDNs from Microsoft or Google.

Remote Validator

ASP.NET MVC 3 supports the new RemoteAttribute class that enables you to take advantage of the jQuery Validation plug-in's remote validator support. This enables the client-side validation library to automatically call a custom method that you define on the server in order to perform validation logic that can only be done server-side.

In the following example, the Remote attribute specifies that client validation will call an action named UserNameAvailable on the UsersController class in order to validate the UserName field.

public class User  
    [Remote("UserNameAvailable", "Users")] 
    public string UserName { get; set; } 

The following example shows the corresponding controller.

public class UsersController  
    public bool UserNameAvailable(string username)  
            return "false";  
        return "true";  

For more information about how to use the Remote attribute, see How to: Implement Remote Validation in ASP.NET MVC in the MSDN library.

JSON Binding Support

ASP.NET MVC 3 includes built-in JSON binding support that enables action methods to receive JSON-encoded data and model-bind it to action-method parameters. This capability is useful in scenarios involving client templates and data binding. (Client templates enable you to format and display a single data item or set of data items by using templates that execute on the client.) MVC 3 enables you to easily connect client templates with action methods on the server that send and receive JSON data. For more information about JSON binding support, see theJavaScript and AJAX Improvements section of Scott Guthrie's MVC 3 Preview blog post.

Model Validation Improvements

"DataAnnotations" Metadata Attributes

ASP.NET MVC 3 supports DataAnnotations metadata attributes such as DisplayAttribute.

"ValidationAttribute" Class

The ValidationAttribute class was improved in the .NET Framework 4 to support a new IsValid overload that provides more information about the current validation context, such as what object is being validated. This enables richer scenarios where you can validate the current value based on another property of the model. For example, the new CompareAttribute attribute lets you compare the values of two properties of a model. In the following example, the ComparePassword property must match the Password field in order to be valid.

public class User 
    public string Password { get; set; }  
    [Required, Compare("Password")]  
    public string ComparePassword { get; set; }  

Validation Interfaces

The IValidatableObject interface enables you to perform model-level validation, and it enables you to provide validation error messages that are specific to the state of the overall model, or between two properties within the model. MVC 3 now retrieves errors from the IValidatableObject interface when model binding, and automatically flags or highlights affected fields within a view using the built-in HTML form helpers.

The IClientValidatable interface enables ASP.NET
MVC to discover at run time whether a validator has support for client validation. This interface has been designed so that it can be integrated with a
variety of validation frameworks.

For more information about validation interfaces, see the Model Validation Improvements section of Scott Guthrie's MVC 3 Preview blog post. (However, note that the reference to "IValidateObject" in the blog should be "IValidatableObject".)

Dependency Injection Improvements

ASP.NET MVC 3 provides better support for applying Dependency Injection (DI) and for integrating with Dependency Injection or Inversion of Control (IOC) containers. Support for DI has been added in the following areas:

  • Controllers (registering and injecting controller factories, injecting controllers).
  • Views (registering and injecting view engines, injecting dependencies into view pages).
  • Action filters (locating and injecting filters).
  • Model binders (registering and injecting).
  • Model validation providers (registering and injecting).
  • Model metadata providers (registering and injecting).
  • Value providers (registering and injecting).

MVC 3 supports the Common Service Locator library and any DI container that supports that library's IServiceLocator interface. It also supports a new IDependencyResolver interface that makes it easier to integrate
DI frameworks.

For more information about DI in MVC 3, see the following resources:

Other New Features

NuGet Integration

ASP.NET MVC 3 automatically installs and enables NuGet as part of its setup. NuGet is a free open-source package manager that makes it easy to find, install, and use .NET libraries and tools in your projects. It works with all Visual Studio project types (including ASP.NET Web Forms and ASP.NET

NuGet enables developers who maintain open source projects (for example, projects like Moq, NHibernate, Ninject, StructureMap, NUnit, Windsor, RhinoMocks, and Elmah) to package their libraries and register them in an online gallery. It is then easy for .NET developers who want to use one of these libraries to find the package and install it in projects they are working on.

With the ASP.NET 3 Tools Update, project templates include JavaScript libraries pre-installed NuGet packages, so they are updatable via NuGet. Entity Framework Code First is also pre-installed as a NuGet package.

For more information about NuGet, see the NuGet documentation on the CodePlex site.

Partial-Page Output Caching

ASP.NET MVC has supported output caching of full page responses since version 1. MVC 3 also supports partial-page output caching, which allows you to easily cache regions or fragments of a response. For more information about caching, see the Partial Page Output Caching section of Scott Guthrie's blog post on the MVC 3 release candidate

and the Child Action Output Caching section of the MVC 3 Release Notes.

Granular Control over Request Validation

ASP.NET MVC has built-in request validation that automatically helps protect against XSS and HTML injection attacks. However, sometimes you want to explicitly disable request validation, such as if you want to let users post HTML content (for example, in blog entries or CMS content). You can now add an AllowHtml attribute to models or view models to disable request validation on a per-property basis during model binding. For more information about request validation, see the following resources:

Extensible "New Project" Dialog Box

In ASP.NET MVC 3 you can add project templates, view engines, and unit test project frameworks to the New Project dialog box.

Template Scaffolding Improvements

ASP.NET MVC 3 scaffolding templates do a better job of identifying primary-key properties on models and handling them appropriately than in earlier versions of MVC. (For example, the scaffolding templates now make sure that the primary key is not scaffolded as an editable form field.)

By default, the Create and Edit scaffolds now use the Html.EditorFor helper instead of the Html.TextBoxFor helper. This improves support for metadata on the model in the form of data annotation attributes when the Add View dialog box generates a view.

New Overloads for "Html.LabelFor" and "Html.LabelForModel"

New method overloads have been added for the LabelFor and LabelForModel helper methods. The new overloads enable you to specify or override the label text.

Sessionless Controller Support

In ASP.NET MVC 3 you can indicate whether you want a controller class to use session state, and if so, whether session state should be read/write or
read-only. For more information about sessionless controller support, see MVC 3 Release Notes.

New "AdditionalMetadataAttribute" Class

You can use the AdditionalMetadataattribute to populate the ModelMetadata.AdditionalValues dictionary for a model property. For example, if a view model has a property that should be displayed only to an administrator, you can annotate that property as shown in the following example:

public class ProductViewModel  
    [AdditionalMetadata("AdminOnly", true)] 
    public string RefundCode {get; set;} 

This metadata is made available to any display or editor template when a product view model is rendered. It is up to you to interpret the metadata information.

AccountController improvements

The AccountController in the Internet project template has been greatly improved.

New Intranet Project Template

A new Intranet Project Template is included which enables Windows Authentication and removes the AccountController.

Amazing Castles in America

When we think about castles we sometimes only think about the classic European examples. But castles and palaces exist all across the globe. Do you ever love to own in a castle, Today let’s take a look at some castles and palace-like architecture throughout the Americas.

Here is a photostream featuring some of our favorite American castles from both North and South America

Hearst Castle - San Simeon, California - Credit: Jill Clardy (via Flickr)

Biltmore Estate - Asheville, North Carolina - Credit: Mike Miley (via Flickr)

Chapultepec Castle - Mexico City - Credit: lion05 (via Flickr)

Belvedere Castle - Central Park - New York City - Credit: Ed Yourdon (via Flickr)

Tulum Castle Ruins - Tulum, Mexico - Credit: Roger4336 (via Flickr)

Chateau Frontenac - Quebec, Quebec - Credit: Martin Cathrae (via Flickr)

Mexico's National Palace - Mexico City - Credit: Jami Dwyer (via Flickr)

'Iolani Palace - Honolulu, Hawaii - Credit: cliff1066™ (via Flickr)

Smithsonian Castle - Washington D.C. - Credit: NCinDC (via Flickr)

Chateau Laurier - Ottowa, Ontario - Credit: Tomato Geezer (via Flickr)

Casa Loma - Toronto, Ontario - Credit: Carsten Ke├čler (via Flickr)

Boldt Castle - Heart Island, New York - Credit: E Photos (via Flickr)

Governor's Palace - Guadalajara, Mexico - Credit: Wonderlane (via Flickr)

Castles In South America

Rio Branco - Brazil - Credit: Eric and Christian (via Flickr)

Archbishop's Palace - Lima, Peru - Credit: Shared Interest (via Flickr)

Presidential Palace - Lima, Peru - Credit: LollyKnit (via Flickr)

Castillo San Felipe - Cartegena, Columbia - Credit: Roger4336 (via Flickr)

Castle Wolff - Chile - Credit: blmurch (via Flickr)

Legislative Palace - Montevideo, Uruguay - Credit: seretide (via Flickr)

Casa Rosada - Buenos Aires, Argentina - Credit: longhorndave (via Flickr)

There are likely many more American castles. Have you visited one? Do you live near one? Do you have a favorite? If so, tell us about it in the comments below.

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