Cars coming up this season in Indian Market - Must Watch - Checkit out

Indian car market is in a perfect festive mood and bustling with brand new wagons. While many models have already hit the rodas, many more are waiting in the wings to be launched.

Diwali, considered as one of the the most auspicious times for new launches, will witness cars of all contours -- right from hatchbacks and sedans to tight-built SUVs.

The new configuration of cars are the ones that are developed from scratch and unlike every year are not just upgrades, and facelifts.

While wagons like Renault Koleos, Nissan Sunny, Honda Brio and Mahindra XUV500 have already hit the Indian roads, new vehicles are waiting in the wings.

Hyundai Eon

The car market is abuzz with the news of Hyundai's lowest priced small car - the Eon.

For long Maruti Suzuki India has been ruling the small car segment, but with the entry of Eon in the 2nd week of October competition in this segment will definitely escalate.

Likely to be priced at Rs 250,000, Eon is directly positioned against Maruti Alto - India's largest selling car that clocks monthly average sales of 25,000-30,000 units.

Hyundai Eon will be a mass puller powered by 800 cc petrol engine expected to churn out a maximum power of 48 bhp which is most likely to be offered in both manual and automatic transmissions.

Hyundai Eon's looks are inspired from Hyundai i10 and interiors from Hyundai Santro which is likely to be phased out gradually.

Eon is most likely to sport the fluidic design of the new Verna.

The front section of Eon looks decent with body coloured bumpers and the rear sheds a crunched and curvy look perfect for a cute looking hatch.

Tata Merlin

Tata Merlin, an SUV from the Tata Motors' stable, will hit the Indian roads soon.

To be priced at or above Rs 10 lakh (Rs 1 million), Tata Merlin, presently undergoing technical tests according to global standards, is ready to take on the newly launched Mahindra XUV500 which sports a starting price of Rs 10.80 lakh.

Tata aims to clock in more sales with Tata Merlin by endowing the SUV with a powerful engine.

A 2179 cc DICOR engine is well anticipated for Tata Merlin delivering 140 bhp of peak power and 320 Nm peak torque.

A complete package of safety features like 6 airbags, ABS with EBD, parking sensors, fog lamps, traction control and ESP are expected to be there in Tata Merlin.

All new Honda City

In India, Honda City has trumped the sales in its segment and proved to be a winner. The facelifted version of the car is ready to hit the Indian market this Diwali.

Honda City price in India would not be much different from the existing version.

The existing City starts at Rs 749,000 (ex-showroom Delhi) and the new version may sport a entry level price tag of Rs 870,000.

The new City is already available in Thailand.

The upgraded City will revise the front with horizontal slabs of chrome.

The bumper will sport revised air intake and fog lamp housing. The tail lamp is redesigned with reflectors on the rear bumper.

Interior of the car will also witness some changes. The instrumentation console will have an ECO-indicator.

Besides it may also include automatic climate control and dual colour.

While the City will not be available in a diesel version, it will sport a 1.5 litre I-Vtec engine that will produce 116 bhp.

Renault B58

Renault is all set to launch a hatchback this festive season. Codenamed 'B58', the hatchback is based on the V-platform used by Nissan Micra.

This B+ hatch will target Maruti Swift. It is likely to use 1.2 litre-3 cylinder petrol or a 1.5 SOHC-4 cylinder, common rail diesel engine.

Skoda Rapid

Skoda will launch Rapid, expected to be in the range of Rs 700,000 - Rs 10 lakh, in the last week of October or November.

The design of Skoda Rapid is greatly inspired by Skoda concept Vision D that the Czech automaker revealed at the Geneva Motor Show.

The Vision D concept of Skoda puts it in the category of more athletic and aerodynamic cars than other Skodas.

All new Mahindra Xylo

Close on the heels of XUV500, Mahindra is planning to launch the new Mahindra Xylo.

The upgraded variant of the popular MUV was spied in Pune during its test drive. It is expected that Mahindra will launch this refreshed version by the next two months.

The story does not cease here as a crushed version of this long MUV is also likely to be introduced soon.

The hatchback will be called as Mahindra Xylo Mini. Mahindra has done away with the rear section of the Xylo to create a baby Xylo.

The car is expected to be crafted with same robust and will sport aggressive looks that are brand image of Mahindra Xylo.

This "small happy legs" car will, however, not have a big boot. The sub 4-metre car is likely to be priced between Rs 500,000 - Rs 600,000.

Audi A5

German carmaker Audi which aims to be No 1 luxury car seller in India will also try its luck during the festive season.

Audi Q5, which showcased sheer luxury in international markets, will now head towards India.

At an estimated price of Rs 39 lakh (Rs 3.9 million) the Audi A5 is claimed to be the best in the segment as far as delivering high power and torque is concerned.

But car lovers will have to wait for this beauty till the end of this year.

Audi A5 is decked with breathtaking design and exceptional engineering in all the three variants - Audi A5 Cabriolet, Audi A5 Sportback and Audi A5 Coupe.

Microsoft Touch Mouse - Trying make the navigation experience much better and easier in Windows 7

The making of Microsoft Touch Mouse
Two years. Dozens of experiments. Hundreds of prototypes. The passion and focus of teams on two continents. These are just a few of the things that went into the creation of the innovative Microsoft Touch Mouse, an interactive tool that makes doing almost every task with Windows 7 more intuitive.

In 2008, Hrvoje Benko, a researcher in the Adaptive Systems and Interaction Group at Microsoft Research in Redmond, Wash., had been working on a multi-touch handheld device prototype with his colleague Dan Rosenfeld. Meanwhile, a Microsoft Research Cambridge team, including Shahram Izadi, Nicolas Villar, and John Helmes, had developed an articulated mouse prototype. The two groups decided to join forces.

“We were all intrigued by the idea of merging the precision and pointing benefits of standard mice with the rich interactions that we had with multi-touch devices, such as Microsoft Surface,” said Benko. “We wanted to see if we could bring multi-touch interactions to the desktop without losing the keyboard or the mouse.”

Over the next couple of years, the team created many prototypes, five of which were shown at the Microsoft Research TechFest in 2009. The early versions of Touch Mouse included three types: camera-based, capacitive-sensing, and articulated (which used multiple existing mice linked together).

The team simulated Surface-like multi-touch functions, desktop management functions, symbolic gesture recognition, and CAD applications—even 3D first-person shooter games.

Ultimately, the researchers settled on the capacitive-sensing model, which has functionality similar to a touchscreen. Then came the testing of hundreds of forms and models with the Microsoft Hardware team, refining as they went for comfort and gesture interaction. The team built a gesture recognition engine, refined the sensor design, and continued to add enhancements over many months.

The result is Touch Mouse, featuring natural gestures including some of the most common tasks that people do with Windows 7, like opening and moving between windows and task switching.

In addition, Touch Mouse uses gestures that engage the whole hand, and works exclusively with Windows 7. Touch Mouse also features BlueTrack technology, which lets people track on virtually any surface*.

Benko, asked to describe Touch Mouse in just three words, said: “That’s easy: Delightful. Fluid. And incredible!”

*BlueTrack Technology does not work on clear glass and mirrored surfaces.

Pulihora - I call it as an Emergency Dish after Egg Burji.. What do you say?

Puliyogare Mix is an Andhra speciality, used as a condiment with many recipes. Learn how to make/prepare Puliyogare Mix by following this easy recipe.

• 1 cup fresh Coconut (shredded)
• 4 tsp Coriander Seeds
• 2 tsp Peppercorns
• A pinch of Hing (Asoefetida)
• 4 tsp Peanuts (shelled and skinned)
• 2 tsp Mustard Seeds
• 12 Red Chilies
• 4 tsp White Sesame Seeds
• 2 sprigs Curry Leaves
• 2 tsp Urad Dal (black gram dal)
• 1 tsp Channa Dal (Bengal gram dal)
• 8 tsp Oil/Ghee
• 1-1/2 cups thick Tamarind Juice
• 1 small piece Jaggery/1 tsp Sugar
• 2 tsp Cumin Seeds

How to make Puliyogare Mix:
• Roast the coconut and set aside.
• Roast coriander, cumin, 6 red chillies, 1 sprig curry leaves, pepper, asoefetida, 1 tsp mustard, 2 tsp sesame seeds, 1/2 tsp channa dal,1 tsp urad dal and 2 tsp peanuts, one by one, till they begin to release aroma.
• Cool down and grind in a food processor, to make a fine powder. Set aside.
• Mix in roasted coconut and blend once again. Set aside.
• Heat some oil and put the remaining mustard seeds, red chilies, urad dal, channa dal, peanuts, sesame seeds and curry leaves.
• Add tamarind juice and salt/jaggery when the seeds begin to splutter. Mix well and add salt to taste.
• As the liquid begins to boil, add powdered masala and continue to simmer, till you get a sticky masala.
• Heat through and cool.
• You can store it for a month in an airtight container, in the refrigerator.
• Mix the masala with plain cooked rice to make puliyogare.

Samsung Galaxy S2 and Samsung Infuse.. Each has its own pros and cons

Samsung Infuse 4G vs Galaxy S2 – Full Specs Compared

Trust Samsung to come with something extraordinary when it comes to Android based smartphones. If it were Galaxy range of smartphones that created waves a few months ago, it is the turn of Samsung’s latest Infuse 4G to bag all the attention as launched mid May. Being dubbed as the biggest and yet the thinnest 4G smartphone ever in U.S., it is to be seen if Infuse can indeed beat the standards set by Samsung Galaxy S2 (Galaxy S II). Let us compare the two Android devices by having a look at their features.

Samsung Infuse 4G

Samsung Infuse 4G is one of the fastest smartphone on AT&T’s HSPA+21Mbps network. Not only this, with a huge display of 4.5 inches that fits in somehow in the ultra slim frame of Infuse, Samsung is set to create a standard that will be a tough job to follow for other manufacturers. The display makes use of super AMOLED Plus technology and produces high brightness levels along with vivid colors and blacks that are to be seen to be believed. Riding on Android 2.2 Froyo and a powerful 1.2GHz processor, the phone gives a performance that is sure to win hearts of millions of mobile users around the world.

The smartphone is a dual camera device with an 8 MP camera at the rear with LED flash capable of recording high definition videos in 720p and a 1.3 MP camera in front that allows video calling. The smartphone is equipped with all standard features like Wi-Fi, A-GPS, Bluetooth, proximity sensor with a 3.5mm audio jack at the top. The phone is armed with Samsung’s famous TouchWiz UI that sits on top of Android 2.2 and makes it a pleasing experience for the user. A notable gift for the users is preloaded Angry Birds with a hidden level. The phone has a big 1750mAh battery that lasts for a longer time. It has Android browser that supports Flash and HTML.

Samsung Infuse 4G is available in AT&T stores and Online stores from May 15 for $200 on a new 2 year contract and a min $15 data plan is required to access web based applications.

Samsung Galaxy S2 (Galaxy S II)

One of the most stunning devices to have come out from the stables of Samsung, Galaxy S2 is nothing short of perfection. Only yesterday, Galaxy S2 became the first smartphone to have tweeted from the highest summit on earth, the Mt. Everest when Kenton Cool scaled the summit 9th time. It is one of the thinnest smartphones (8.49mm) that gives an incredible performance with a dual core processor.

In a sense, Galaxy S2 is a worthy successor to Galaxy S that became extremely popular because of its features. It is compatible with the fastest HSPA+21Mbps network and allows multitasking to give the user a PC like experience. It has an incredibly sharp 8 MP camera (auto focus, LED flash) that produces HD videos in 1080 and through the incredible AllShare technology from Samsung, makes it possible to share the photos and videos without any glitches.

The dimensions of the phone are 125.3×66.1×8.49 mm and it weighs just 116g, making it one of the smallest and lightest smartphones. With a super AMOLED Plus screen having a size of 4.3 inches; it produces natural and vivid 16 M colors. It has a highly capacitive screen that allows for multi touch input. The phone has a proximity sensor and a gyroscope sensor coupled with an accelerometer. For connectivity, it is Wi-Fi 802.11b/g/n, DLNA, EDGE, and GPRS and can become a mobile hotspot. With additional Wi-Fi direct capabilities and full Adobe Flash 10.1 support, the HTML browser provides seamless net browsing experience. It is equipped with an FM stereo.

Samsung Infuse 4G vs Galaxy S2

• While Galaxy S2 runs on latest Android 2.3 Gingerbread, Infuse works on Android 2.2 Froyo.

• The secondary camera of Galaxy S2 is 2Mp, better than 1.3 MP camera of Infuse 4G

• The main cameras of both Galaxy S2 and Infuse are 8 MP but while Infuse can record HD videos in 720p, the camera of Galaxy S2 can go up to 1080p.

• Infuse comes preloaded with Angry Birds game which is not there in Galaxy S2

• Infuse also allows for free downloads worth $25.

• While Infuse boasts of a powerful 1.2GHz Hummingbird processors, Galaxy S2 has 1.2GHz dual core, ARM Cortex A9 processor

• Infuse has a slightly larger 4.5 inch display than Galaxy S2 (4.3 inch)

• Infuse has a larger battery at 1750mAh while Galaxy S2 has 1650mAh battery.

Comparison of Specifications
Samsung Infuse 4G vs Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Design Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Form Factor Candy Bar Candy bar
Keyboard On-Screen with Swype Virtual QWERTY with Swype
Dimension 5.2x2.8x0.35 in (8.89mm) 125.30 x 66.10 x 8.49 mm,
Weight 4.9 oz 116 g
Body Color Caviar Black Black
Display Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Size 4.5 in super AMOLED plus 4.3 inches
Resolution WVGA (800 x 480) WVGA, 800×480 pixels
Features Rich, vivid color with high contrast, Bright, Sharp, Easy to read in direct sunlight 16M color
Sensors Accelerometer, Magnetometer (digital compass), Proximity sensor, Ambient light sensor Image stabilization, Accelerator Sensor, Proximity Sensor, Digital Compass, Gyrometer
Operating System Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Platform Android 2.2 (Froyo) Android 2.3.x (Gingerbread)
UI TouchWiz 3.0 TouchWiz 4.0, Personalizable UI
Browser Android WebKit, full HTML Android WebKit, full HTML
Java/Adobe Flash Adobe Flash Player 10.1 Adobe Flash 10.2
Processor Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Model Hummingbird Samsung Exynos, ARMv7 Dual-core, Mali-400MP GPU
Speed 1.2 GHz 1.2 GHz Dual-core
Memory Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
RAM 512 MB + 512 MB ROM 1 GB
Included 16 GB 16 GB/32 GB
Expansion Up to 32GB with microSD card (SD 2.0) Up to 32GB with microSD card
Camera Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Resolution 8 MP 8 Megapixel
Focus, Zoom Auto, Digital Auto, Digital
Video Capture 720p@30fps HD FullHD 1080p High Profile
Features Geo tagging, Single Shot, Beauty Shot, Panorama Shot, Smile Shot, Action Shot, Cartoon Shot
Secondary camera 1.3 MP VGA Image stabilization, Accelerator Sensor, Proximity Sensor, Digital Compass, Gyrometer
Entertainment Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Audio MP3 Player Sound Alive music player, File Formats: MP3, AAC, AAC+, eAAC+, OGG, WMA, AMR, WAV , FLAC, XMF, MID,
Video Samsung Media Hub, U-verse Live TV 1080p@ 30fps, DivX, XviD, MPEG 4, H.263, H.264, WMV, VC-1, Video streaming
Gaming Angry Bird pre loaded Game Hub, Let Golf 2, Real Football 2011
FM Radio Yes
Battery Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Type Capacity Li-ion 1750 mAh 1650 mAh Li-ion removable
Talktime 8 hours 50min TBU
Standby 400 hours TBU
Mail and Messaging Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Mail POP3/IMAP Gmail, Email, MS Outlook POP3/IMAP4 Email &, SMS, MMS with Video, Gmail, MS Exchange
Messaging SMS, MMS, IM (Google talk) IM (Google Talk) , Beluga IM (Facebook)
Connectivity Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi Direct, 802.11 b/g/n
Wi-Fi Hotspot Yes
Bluetooth v2.1+EDR v3.0
USB 2.0 High Speed 2.0 FS
HDMI Yes Yes, HDMI mirroring up to 1080p
DLNA Yes AllShare DLNA
Location Service Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Maps Google Maps, Google Latitude Google Maps Navigation - beta, Navigon
GPS A-GPS with Navigation Yes, with A-GPS support
Lost-Theft Protection Yes , with third party application ex: My Lookout
Network Support Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Applications Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Apps Android Market, Samsung App Android market, Samsung Apps, Google Goggle, Google Mobile App
Social Networks Facebook, Twitter , YouTube Facebook,Twitter,SNS, Social Hub
Voice Calling Skype,Viber,Vonage
Video Calling Skype,Tango
Featured Vlingo - Voice Solution, Office Document Viewer, AllShare
Business Mobility Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Remote VPN Yes
Corporate Mail Microsoft Exchange Server Yes, Microsoft Exchange Active Sync
Corporate Directory Microsioft Exchange Active Sync Yes with CISCO Mobile App
Video Conferencing Yes with Cisco WebEx
Security Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
Password Protected Screen,Thirdparty mobile secure application like Lookout.
Additional Features Samsung Infuse 4G Samsung Galaxy S II (Galaxy S2)
NFC,Samsung Kies 2.0, Samsung Kies Air, Readers Hub, Music Hub, Game Hub, AllShare, Vlingo Voice Recognition & Voice Translation, On Device Encryption, Cisco’s AnyConnect VPN, MDM

Oosaravelli Movie - Has Junior NTR tried to keep up to the fans expectations?

Oosaravelli Review – JR NTR latest film Oosaravelli released on this festival day amidst huge expectations. This is the biggest ever release for a Tollywood movie and lots of expectations and crores of money are riding on it. Did it match the hype and surpass the expectations? Find out in Oosaravelli Review…


Tony (NTR) is a typical character who changes moods and colors as per the situation. He meets Niharika (Tamanna) in an awkward situation which leads to love. He falls in love with her and chases her day and night. He gets to know that she is already in love with someone, but chases her down till she falls in love with him. At this point the other side of him is revealed which gives us the answers for the unanswered. Actually he is on a mission to kill an entire mafia empire. Why does he do that? For whom does he work for? Watch the movie for answers.


Oosaravelli starts off on a high note with excellent intro scene of hero. The hero character is introduced in such a way that audience expects him to play mind games and wise tricks all the time. But the film turns out to be a love story after that hyped introduction. This part is dealt in an entertaining with NTR, Raghubabu, MS Narayana and Jayaprakash Reddy doing the honors of filling in fun moments. The real story will only start before interval and the interval scene has really come out well. The graph picks up suddenly and sets high expectations on the second half.

Second half will reveal about the hero’s mission and why he has been under disguise. This part mostly deals with the heroine and it may not be liked by hardcore NTR fans. He goes missing for more than ten minutes and the film considerably slows down. Movie takes a serious turn and comedy takes the backseat. Director tried to force comedy in bits and pieces in the second hour but it didn’t gel well.

Script wise, Oosaravelli is good barring few plot holes. But where it fails is with balancing NTR’s mass image with the hero’s characterization. Director had to sacrifice mind games and intelligent play for the sake of satisfying NTR fans, which didn’t help the film much. On a whole Oosaravelli can be watched once for its entertaining first half, interesting plot and performances of the lead star cast.

Commercially it may suffer because of going against NTR image. NTR city based fans and youth may be satisfied to see him in a new avatar, but his core audience from the B and C centers will have too many complaints with the film.


It is good to see NTR switching genres. He did a completely different role in this movie which is more of a lover boy and less of an action hero. He also tried comedy and underplayed the emotions. It is refreshing to see him in this movie. He has to keep a check on the weight as he is gaining few kilos. His dances in Dandia India are good.

Tamanna got a very good role and she excelled in it. Generally heroines don’t get much scope in star heroes films. But this film is an exception and Tamanna lapped it up. She is gorgeous in few scenes.

Prakash Raj is routine. Jayaprakash and Raghubabu are funny. MS Narayana shared few laughs. Kick Shyam is brief and Rehaman is Okay. Sayaji Shinde’s role is half baked. Harika (Payal Ghosh) gives a neat performance.


Koratala Siva dialogues worked in places. On a whole lacked the necessary punch. Devi Sri Prasad’s background score is fabulous. Two songs are very good. Rasool camera is one of the highlights of the movie. Action part is dealt well. There are few action scenes but are shot in an exciting fashion. Production values are rich.

Surender Reddy did well as a director to handle the script well. However, he is off balance at times as he is ‘confused’ to stick with the content or to go with NTR’s mass image. He should have opted for a small hero instead of choosing a star for this script, which would have done wonders for him.

Final Word: Don’t expect a brand NTR film!

Oosaravelli Movie Rating: 3/5
Banner: Sri Venkateswara Cini Chitra
Casting: Jr NTR, Tamanna, Prakash Raj, Shyam, Jayaprakash, Raghubabu, MS Narayana
Music: Devi Sri Prasad
Producer: BVSN Prasad
Direction: Surender Reddy

Steve Jobs Biography

Steve Paul Jobs
Born 1955 Los Altos CA; Evangelic bad boy who, with Steve Wozniak, co-founded Apple Computer Corporation and became a multimillionaire before the age of 30. Subsequently started the NeXT Corporation to provide an educational system at a reasonable price, but found that software was a better seller than hardware.
Educ: Ungraduated, Physics, literature, and poetry, Reed College, OR; Prof. Exp: Atari Corporation; Apple Corporation; NeXT Corporation.

Going to work for Atari after leaving Reed College, Jobs renewed his friendship with Steve Wozniak. The two designed computer games for Atari and a telephone "blue box", getting much of their impetus from the Homebrew Computer Club. Beginning work in the Job's family garage they managed to make their first "killing" when the Byte Shop in Mountain View bought their first fifty fully assembled computers. On this basis the Apple Corporation was founded, the name based on Job's favorite fruit and the logo (initially used as the unregistered logo of the ACM APL Conference in San Francisco) chosen to play on both the company name and the word byte. Through the early 1980's Jobs controlled the business side of the corporation, successively hiring presidents who would take the organization to a higher level. With the layoffs of 1985 Jobs lost a power struggle with John Sculley, and after a short hiatus reappeared with new funding to create the NeXT corporation.


Woz[niak] was the first person I met who knew more about electronics than I did.
About Jobs:: Like the Bhagwan, driving around Rancho Rajneesh each day in another Rolls-Royce, Jobs kept his troops fascinated and productive. The joke going around said that Jobs had a 'reality distortion field' surrounding him. He'd say something, and the kids in the Macintosh division would find themselves replying 'Drink poison Kool-Aid? Yeah, that makes sense'. - Robert X. Cringely, 1992.

Early History.

Steven Paul, was an orphan adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs of Mountain View, California in February 1955. Jobs was not happy at school in Mountain View so the family moved to Los Altos, California, where Steven attended Homestead High School. His electronics teacher at Homestead High, Hohn McCollum, recalled he was "something of a loner" and "always had a different way of looking at things." [Halliday, 1983, p. 205]
After school, Jobs attended lectures at the Hewlett-Packard electronics firm in Palo Alto, California. There he was hired as a summer employee. Another employee at Hewlett-Packard was Stephen Wozniak a recent dropout from the University of California at Berkeley. An engineering whiz with a passion for inventing electronic gadgets, Wozniak at that time was perfecting his "blue box," an illegal pocket-size telephone attachment that would allow the user to make free long-distance calls. Jobs helped Wozniak sell a number of the devices to customers. [Halliday, 1983, p. 205]

In 1972 Jobs graduated from high school and register at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. After dropping out of Reed after one semester, he hung around campus for a year, taking classes in philosophy and immersing himself in the counterculture. [Halliday, 1983, p. 205]

Early in 1974 Jobs took a job as a video game designer at Atari, Inc., a pioneer in electronic arcade recreation. After several months working, he saved enough money to adventure on a trip to India where he traveled in search of spiritual enlightenment in the company of Dan Kottke, a friend from Reed College. In autumn of 1974, Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of Wozniak's "Homebrew Computer Club." Wozniak, like most of the club's members, was content with the joy of electronics creation. Jobs was not interested in creating electronics and was nowhere near as good an engineer as Woz. He had his eye on marketability of electronic products and persuaded Wozniak to work with him toward building a personal computer. [Halliday, 1983, p. 205]

Wozniak and Jobs designed the Apple I computer in Jobs's bedroom and they built the prototype in the Jobs' garage. Jobs showed the machine to a local electronics equipment retailer, who ordered twenty-five. Jobs received marketing advice from a friend, who was a retired CEO from Intel, and he helped them with marketing strategies for selling their new product. Jobs and Wozniak had great inspiration in starting a computer company that would produce and sell computers. To start this company they sold their most valuable possessions. Jobs sold his Volkswagen micro-bus and Wozniak sold his Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator, which raised $1,300 to start their new company. With that capital base and credit begged from local electronics suppliers, they set up their first production line. Jobs encouraged Wozniak quit his job at Hewlett-Packard to become the vice president in charge of research and development of the new enterprise. And he did quit his job to become vice president. Jobs came up with the name of their new company Apple in memory of a happy summer he had spent as an orchard worker in Oregon. [Halliday, 1983, p. 205]

Apple Computer

Jobs and Wozniak put together their first computer, called the Apple I. They marketed it in 1976 at a price of $666. The Apple I was the first single-board computer with built-in video interface, and on-board ROM, which told the machine how to load other programs from an external source. Jobs was marketing the Apple I at hobbyists like members of the Homebrew Computer Club who could now perform their own operations on their personal computers. Jobs and Wozniak managed to earn $774,000 from the sales of the Apple I. The following year, Jobs and Wozniak developed the general purpose Apple II. The design of the Apple II did not depart from Apple I's simplistic and compactness design. The Apple II was the Volkswagon of computers. The Apple II had built-in circuitry allowing it to interface directly to a color video monitor. Jobs encouraged independent programmers to invent applications for Apple II. The result was a library of some 16,000 software programs. [Halliday, 1983, p. 206]

For the Apple II computer to compete against IBM, Jobs needed better marketing skills. To increase his marketing edge he brought Regis McKenna and Nolan Bushnell into the company. McKenna was the foremost public relations man in the Silicon Valley. Nolan Bushnell was Jobs's former supervisor at Atari. Bushnell put Jobs in touch with Don Valentine, a venture capitalist, who told Markkula, the former marketing manager at Intel, that Apple was worth looking into. Buying into Apple with an investment variously estimated between $91,000 and $250,000, Markkula became chairman of the company in May 1977. The following month Michael Scott, who was director of manufacturing at Semi-Conductor Inc., became president of Apple. Through Markkula, Apple accumulated a line of credit with the Bank of America and $600,000 in venture capital from the Rockefellers and Arthur Roch. [Halliday, 1983, p. 206]

Quickly setting the standard in personal computers, the Apple II had earnings of $139,000,000 within three years, a growth of 700 percent. Impressed with that growth, and a trend indicating an additional worth of 35 to 40 percent, the cautious underwriting firm of Hambrecht & Quist in cooperation with Wall Street's prestigious Morgan Stanley, Inc., took Apple public in 1980. The underwriters price of $22 per share went up to $29 the first day of trading, bringing the market value of Apple to $1.2 billion. In 1982 Apple had sales of $583,000,000 up 74 percent from 1981. Its net earnings were $1.06 a share, up 55 percent, and as of December 1982, the company's stock was selling for approximately $30 a share. [Halliday, 1983, p. 206]

Over the past seven years of Apple's creation, Jobs had created a strong productive company with a growth curve like a straight line North with no serious competitors. From 1978 to 1983, its compound growth rate was over 150% a year. Then IBM muscled into the personal computer business. Two years after introducing its PC, IBM passed Apple in dollar sales of the machines. IBM's dominance had made its operating system an industry standard which was not compatible with Apple's products. Jobs knew in order to compete with IBM, he would have to make the Apple compatible with IBM computers and needed to introduce new computers that could be marketed in the business world which IBM controlled. [Morrison, 1984, p. 86] To help him market these new computers Jobs recruited John Sculley from Pesi Cola for a position as president at Apple. Jobs enticed Scully to Apple with a challenge: "If you stay at Pepsi, five years from now all you'll have accomplished is selling a lot more sugar water to kids. [Gelman and Rogers, 1985, p. 46] If you come to Apple you can change the world." [Conant and Marbach, 1984, p. 56]

Jobs in 1981 introduced the Apple III, which had never fully recovered from its traumatic introduction, because Apple had to recall the first 14,000 units to remedy design flaws, and then had trouble selling the re-engineered version. Another Apple failure was the mouse-controlled Lisa, announced to stockholders in 1983. It should have been a world beater, because Lisa was the first personal computer controlled by a mouse which made it have a user-friendly interface, but had an un-friendly price of $10,000. The worst thing about Apple's development of computers was they lacked coherence. Each of Apple's three computers used a separate operating system.

Jobs designed the Macintosh to compete with the PC and, in turn, make Apple's new products a success. In an effort to revitalize the company and prevent it from falling victim to corporate bureaucracy, Jobs launched a campaign to bring back the values and entrepreneurial spirit that characterized Apple in its garage shop days. In developing the Macintosh, he tried to re-create an atmosphere in which the computer industry's highly individualistic, talented, and often eccentric software and hardware designers could flourish. The Macintosh had 128K of memory, twice that of the PC, and the memory could be expandable up to192K. The Mac's 32-bit microprocessor did more things and out performed the PC's 16-bit microprocessor. The larger concern of management concerning the Macintosh was not IBM compatible. This caused an uphill fight for Apple in trying to sell Macintosh to big corporations that where IBM territory. "We have thought about this very hard and it old be easy for us to come out with an IBM look-alike product, and put the Apple logo on it, and sell a lot of Apples. Our earning per share would go up and our stock holders would be happy, but we think that would be the wrong thing to do," says Jobs. [Morrison, 1984, p. 86] The strengths of Macintosh design was not memory, power, or manipulative ability, but friendliness, flexibility, and adaptability to perform creative work. The Macintosh held the moments possibility that computer technology would evolve beyond the mindless crunching of numbers for legions of corporate bean-counters. As the print campaign claimed, the Macintosh was the computer "for the rest of us." [Scott, 1991, p.71]

The strategy Jobs used to introduce the Macintosh in 1984 was radical. The Macintosh, with all its apparent vulnerability, was a revolutionary act infused with altruism, a technological bomb-throwing. When the machine was introduced to the public on Super Bowl Sunday it was, as Apple Chairman Steve Jobs described it, "kind of like watching the gladiator going into the arena and saying, 'Here it is." [Scott, 1991, p.71] The commercial had a young woman athlete being chased by faceless storm-troopers who raced past hundreds of vacant eyed workers and hurled a sledgehammer into the image of a menacing voice. A transcendent blast. Then a calm, cultivated speaker assured the astonished multitudes that 1984 would not be like 1984. Macintosh had entered the arena. That week, countless newspapers and magazines ran stories with titles like "What were you doing when the '1984' commercial ran?" [Scott, 1991, p.72]

Jobs' invocation of the gladiator image is not incidental here. Throughout the development of the Macintosh, he had fanned the fervor of the design team by characterizing them as brilliant, committed marhinals. He repeatedly clothed both public and private statements about the machine in revolutionary, sometimes violent imagery, first encouraging his compatriots to see themselves as outlaws, and then target the audience to imagine themselves as revolutionaries. Jobs, like all those who worked on the project, saw the Macintosh as something that would change the world. Jobs described his Macintosh developing team as souls who were "well grounded in the philosophical traditions of the last 100 years and the sociological traditions of the 60's. The Macintosh team pursued their project through grueling hours and against formidable odds. A reporter who interviewed the team wrote: "The machine's development was, in turn, traumatic, joyful, grueling, lunatic, rewarding and ultimately the major event in the lives of almost everyone involved". [Scott, 1991, p.72]

The image Jobs wanted the public to have of the Macintosh was young, wears blue jeans, and lives in an 80's version of the 60's counterculture. Macintosh was impatient, uncomfortable, and contemptuous of everything that was conventional or hierarchical. He/she was both creative and committed, believing strongly that his/her work ultimately matters. Even if we counted beans for a living, we secretly saw ourselves as Romantic poets. [Scott, 1991, p.73] Jobs approach in developing the Macintosh was like the history of telephones. When the telegraph became popular for communication a century ago, some people suggested putting a telegraph machine on everyone's desk, but everyone would have had to learn Morse code. Just a few years later Alexander Graham Bell filed his first patents for the telephone, and that easy-to-use technology became the standard means of communication. "We're at same juncture; people just are not going to be willing to spend the time learning Morse code, or reading a 400-page manual on word processing. The current generation of personal computers just will not any longer. We want to make a product like the first telephone. We want to make mass market appliances. What we are trying to develop is a computer that can do all those things that you might expect, but we also offer a much higher performance which takes the form of a very easy-to-use product." [Morrison, 1984, p. 98]

As the Macintosh took off in sales and became a big hit, John Sculley felt Jobs was hurting the company, and persuaded the board to strip him of power. John Sculley tried to change the discipline of the company by controlling costs, reducing overhead, rationalizing product lines to an organization that some in the industry called Camp Runamok. [Morrison, 1984, p. 90] Sculley came to the conclusion that "we could run a lot better with Steve out of operations," he says. [Gelman and Rogers, 1985, p. 46] Jobs tended to value technological "elegance" over customer needs which is a costly luxury at a time of slowing sales. And Jobs's intense involvement with the Macintosh project had a demoralizing effect on Apple's other divisions. [Gelman and Rogers, 1985, p. 47]

Jobs was exiled to an office in an auxiliary building that he nicknamed "Siberia." Jobs says he did not get any assignments and gradually found that important company documents no longer landed on his desk. He told every member of the executive staff that he wanted to be helpful in any way he could, and he made sure each had his home phone number. Few ever called back. "It was very clear there was nothing for me to do," he says, "I need a purpose to make me go." [Gelman and Rogers, 1985, p. 47]

He soon came to believe that he would find no purpose within Apple. In July, Sculley had told security analysts in a meeting that Jobs would have no role in the operations of the company "now or in the future." When Jobs heard of the message he said, "You've probably had somebody punch you in the stomach and it knocks the wind out you and you cannot breathe. The harder you try to breathe, the more you cannot breathe. And you know that the only thing you can do is just relax so you can start breathing again." [Gelman and Rogers, 1985, p. 48]

The Next Step

Jobs sold over $20 million of his Apple stock, spent days bicycling along the beach, feeling sad and lost, toured Paris, and journeyed on to Italy. It was not until late August that he began to catch his breath. [Utal, 1985, p. 119] Then Jobs thought back on his experience at Apple. Though he is not an engineer, he felt his greatest talent had been spearheading development of new products. Jobs also recalled with special pride that he had helped introduce personal computers into education. [Utal, 1985, p. 119] To collect his thoughts one day, he took up pen and paper and began to write down the things that were important to him. Along with the development of the Macintosh, he listed three educational projects he had launched: Kids Can't Wait, Apple Education Foundation, and the Apple University Consortium. [Utal, 1985, p. 119]

Inspiration came at the beginning of September 1985 when he had lunch with Paul Berg, a Nobel laureate in biochemistry at Standford University. Paul Berg explained to Jobs the time consuming trial and error experiments carried out to extract DNA. Jobs asked whether Berg had ever thought of speeding up these experiments by simulating them on a computer. Berg said most universities did not have the necessary computers and software. "That's when I started to really think about this stuff and get my wheels turning again," says Jobs. [Utal, 1985, p. 122]

On September 12, 1985 Steve rose in the board meeting and said in a flay, unemotional voice, "I've been thinking a lot and it's time for me to get on with my life. It's obvious that I've got to do something. I'm thirty years old." [Sculley, 1987, p. 201] Offering to resign as chairman, Steve said he intended to leave the company to start a new venture to address the higher education market. The company Jobs envisioned would have sales reaching $50 million annually in a few years and would not be competitive with Apple, only complementary, and that he would take with him only a handful of personnel. [Utal, 1985, p. 124] John Sculley said, "all of us want you to reconsider your decision to resign from the board. Apple would be interested in buying 10 percent of your new company." Jobs told the board he would think about it and tell them his decision the upcoming Thursday. [Sculley, 1987, p. 204]

That Thursday Jobs went into Sculley's office and handed him a piece of paper with all five employees that would leave with him. The employee's were Rich Page, an Apple Fellow and one of the company's most import engineering designers, Daniel Lewin, the marketing manager for higher education business, Bud Tribble, the manager of software engineering for Macintosh, Susan Barnes, Senior controller for US. sales and marketing, and George Crow, an engineering manager with vast Macintosh experience. Together, they knew Apple's internal schedules, costs, focus of next products, schedule of when Apple would introduce them, how they would be used, and which individuals and universities Apple would work with to ensure their success. The board authorized Sculley to begin litigation on the basis that Steve allegedly made plans for the new company while serving as Apple's chairman, and that Steve falsely represented his company and intentions to the board.

A Software Company

After leaving Apple, Jobs' new revolutionary ideas were not in hardware but in software of the computer industry. In 1989 Jobs tried to do it all over again with a new company called NextStep. He planned to build the next generation of personal computers that would put Apple to shame. It did not happen. After eight long years of struggle and after running through some $250 million, NextStep closed down its hardware division in 1993. Jobs realized that he was not going to revolutionize the hardware. He turned his attention to the software side of the computer industry.

In 1994, Jobs feels there is a lot of money in developing an object-oriented industry that would fix the problems companies have in developing software. The corporate developers are going to fuel the object revolution because they know they have a giant problem that needs to be solved in software development, and PC makers are doing less to serve the needs of software developers. [Goodell, 1994, p. 73] Jobs said, "Our primary mission is to establish NextStep as a leading operating system in the Nineties." Now, Jobs invisions NextStep will revolutionize the computer industry by its operating system software which incorporates a hot technology. It's called object-oriented programming (OOP), and OOP lets programmers write software in a fraction of the usual time. [Goodell, 1994, p. 77] Jobs feels OOP is the solution to corporations problems of wasting money to develop software because OOP serves as a blue print to develop programs like blue prints for constructing a building. Jobs thinks the OOP paradigm will have a great effect on the production of software like the effect the industrial revolution had on manufactured goods. "In my 20 years in the industry, I have never seen a revolution as profound as this. You can build software literally five to ten times faster, and that software is more reliable, easier to maintain, and more powerful," says Jobs. [Goodell, 1994, p. 77]

Jobs feels software programs have gotten bigger, more complicated, and much more expensive to produce. Object-oriented programming changes that by allowing gigantic, complex programs to be assembled like Tinker toys. Programmers will use pre-assembled chunks of code to build 80 percent of their program thus saving an enormous amount of time and money.

The criticizim Jobs received from building the NextStep comupter was that he failed in trying to build a second computer empire. Jobs's goal was to produce a NextStep computer for $3,000 that would land on the desk of every college student. In designing the NextStep computer, he ignored the demands of thecomputer market. Even his own experts were saying: "Keep in touch with the intended customers and avoid the pitfall of anerobic isolation; do not assume that the customers will pay any price to secure the lastest computer technology; ease the way for customers to adopt a new standard by providing software and hardware bridges that help connect older machines to the new ones." According to developers, he disregarded every one of these lessons when he launched NextStep computer. [Peterson, 1994, p. 73]

In mid 1989, after long delays which Jobs was never blamed for, NextStep finally introduced a $7,000 monochrome system. The system had no floppy disk, virtually no useful software applications, and a slow magneto-optical disk. When the NextStep computer was introduced, the academic world and corporate America rejected it. In the end, only about 50,000 NextStep machines were ever built, and in February 1993 Jobs announced that NextStep would stop producing hardware and focus all its enery on the NextStep operating system. The operating system was promised to run on a wide variety of platforms. [Peterson, 1994, p. 73]

Jobs recurited an Englishman, Peter van Cuylenburg, age forty-four as his number two person in NextStep to help promote the NextStep computer and organize the company's management. The company's management had decimated. In the past few months virtually all of NextStep's vice presidents had quit. Van Cuylenburg said the quitting of vice's presidents was due to his own toughness. He said, "I've put pressure on the company, and not everyone was willing or able to accept it. NextStep had too many vice presidents when I arrived, so Jobs and I decided to eliminate some." [Deutschman, 1993, p. 100]

Jobs and Cuylenburg planned on releasing NextStep software to run on other companies computers by the fall of 1993. NextStep did release a version of NextStep's operating system for PC's equipped with Intel's 486 microprocessor. Still, the market did not fully accept NextStep's operating system over OS/2 or Microsoft DOS.

NextStep had also talked with Hewlett-Packard, Sun, and others about licensing NextStep to run on their machines. But these companies thought it was a ridiculous idea, because NextStep is trying to acrimoniously compete against them in hardware. Cuylenburg admits that the scenario makes sense only if NextStep's hardware business is small enough that the major players do not see NextStep's computers as a threat. [Deutschman, 1993, p. 100]

Jobs feels NextStep is moving slowly but surely to being a software company that makes great reference hardware. That is NextStep will have a machine that provides a benchmark of quality. The NextStep operating system will be in a three-way race for the object-oriented operating system of the Nineties against Microsoft's Cairo project and Apple's and IBM's joint venture. [Deutschman, 1993, p. 102]

Considering that object-oriented software has become the key to NextStep's future, it is ironic the Jobs committed the company to it almost by accident. When NextStepintroduced its first machine, the Cube, in 1988, it was incompatible with existing computers. These computers had virtually no software to run on them. Jobs urgently needed outside software developers to write programs for the Cube. He found the basis for his operating system in Carnegie Mellon University software called Mach, which happened to use object-oriented programming. Jobs' goal was not to ease programmers' lives; he just wanted to get some programs written and shrink-wrapped pronto so he could sell his NextStep computers. [Deutschman, 1993, p. 102]

NextStep squeezed its way into the field of being a good platform for companies to build object oriented programming through a review done by CKS Partners. CKS Partners is a San Francisco advertising agency founded by a bunch of old Apple colleagues. Jobs NextStep advertising agency needed help in promoting the NextStep, because it boasted about the computers hardware disk storage and processing chip technology, but gave no compelling reason for businesses to buy a NextStation. Jobs called on his old friends at CKS Partners to help his advertising agency out. CKS conducted focus groups of Fortune 500 managers in charge of information systems. They can up with the report there was little perception in the marketplace about NextStep. But important information came from a number of hard-core information systems geeks. They had discovered NextStep made it much easier and faster for companies' in-house programmers to customize software to handle important parts of their businesses. Rather than start from scratch, programmers using object oriented programming can do much of the job by looking in a library of preexisting software modules. [Deutschman, 1993, p. 102]

This was a good report to have about the qualities and benefits of using a NextStep computer, because if companies where to read analysist report on NextStep computers in a computer magazine. The companies could reduce the time in developing software packages by having a preexisting library full of code all ready written to handle specific operations. And NextStep provides an easy platform to create libraries, maintain, and integrate the code in a object oriented programing environment. The companies would see a solution to the problem of spending to much time and money in building software applications. Software developers could reduce their time in finding errors and maintaining its software, because object oriented design allows a nice encapsulated structure, information hiding, and communication between modules through messages.

A company O'Connor & Associates, a Chicago options and futures firm, claims its engineers can write a complex trading program in three months with NextStep versus over two years on a Sun workstation. Corporate mangers who ventured into using NextStep computers told NextStep, "You guys have one of the best products ever, but you do not even know it and you're not trying to sell it to us." Jobs recalls himself, "Companies came to us and said, "You're idiots, you just do not get it." Now that NextStep knew companies in the real world could solve problems faster with NextStep computers. NextStep needed to advertise better how their computer's performance and benefits could make companies more productive. So Next went to compare their system against their number one competitor Sun computer. The Company commissioned a study by management consultants Booz Allen & Hamilton that showed that corporate programmers worked two to nine times faster on NextStep machines, than on Suns and others. When Sun World magazine gave its highest rating not to a Sun machine but to the NextStation Turbo machine, a NextStep advertisement proclaimed: NEXTSTEP CAST SHADOW OVER SUN.

From the review reports the company's sales have gone up, but NextStep has been forced to turn to its Japanese partner for cash infusions. Canon originally invested $100 million in 1989 and added another $10 million to $20 million in 1991 before extending that $55 million credit line last July in 1992. Canon holds an 18% equity stake Industry analysts say that the Japanese are increasingly scrutinizing their investment. The heat is on for NextStep to start producing high marginal returns from selling their NextStep products. [Deutschman, 1993, p. 104]

Jobs thinks Next can survive as a software company when he attacks his old enemy Apple and IBM. He does not think the Apple-IBM linkup will work: "Apple has a thousand software engineers, who have realized that Taligent is their enemy." If apple adopts IBM's Taligent software, Jobs explains their out of a job. Instead, he argued, if Apple will stick with its System 8, under development in-house, leaving IBM as Taligent's primary advocate in the marketplace. This would leave IBM in a bad position. Jobs admits that Microsoft has "market power" and sees Cairo as his main competitor.

Jobs feels his NextStep machines are going to be in high demand, because once businesses figure out how to use object oriented programming to solve most of their design problems. Business are going to buy NextStep computers to run the object oriented platform, because the businesses have money and will pay big money for things that will save them money or give them new capabilities. [Goodell, 1994, p. 78]

Jobs thinks the advantages of NextStep software compared to its rival Microsoft is its ability to design programs in an object oriented design. Jobs perceives Microsoft Windows as a bad development environment. And Microsoft does not have any interest in making it better, because the fact that it's really hard to develop applications in Windows plays to Microsoft's advantage. Microsoft developed their software so companies cannot have small teams of programmers writing word processors and spreadsheets, because it might upset their competitive advantage. Jobs states that NextStep will become the preferred platform for businesses to develop software. Therefore NextStep software will out compete Microsoft in programming languages used to develop applications. [Goodell, 1994, p. 78]

Jobs thinks object oriented programming will allow small company's to build libraries containing already built coded modules. These libraries will allow programmers to incorporate pre-existing modules to perform specific operations in their code. This type of programming technique will reduce time a programmer has to spend on writing code. Therefore less time spent on a project the company saves money. Since the library code has already been tested, programmers using the pre-existing code in their programs have fewer errors. Less errors to fix in a program means less time spent on the program which saves the company money. Jobs says NextStep software will literally let three people in a small business out perform what 200 people at Microsoft can do. Corporate America has a need to find a solution to their problems. Jobs feels NextStep software can save companies a lot of much money or make them a lot much money. If companies do not presently invest into object oriented programming, their developing technique will cost them large amounts of money. Later, when they try to re-organized their software system they fuel the object revolution. [Goodell, 1994, p. 78]

Jobs believes Microsoft has not transformed itself into an agent for improving things or a company that will lead the next revolution in software development. Jobs has become very concerned because he sees Microsoft competing very fiercely to put a lot of companies out of business. This is hurting innovation in the computer industry. Jobs feels the computer industry needs an alternative to Microsoft's software in computer systems. He hopes people will turn to NextStep software. [Goodell, 1994, p. 78]

Steve Jobs

How did the creation of Apple and NextStep develop Steve Jobs's managing skills? Jobs has been criticized as America's roughest, toughest, most intimidating bosses. Ever since Steve Jobs founded Apple Computer when he was 21, the meditating computer mogul was known as the terrible infant of Silicon Valley. Now, as head of NextStep, the 38-year-old Jobs is no longer an infant, but according to those who have worked with him, he still is terrible. [Dumaine, 1993, p. 40]

Many colleagues describe Jobs as a brilliant man who can be a great motivater and positively charming. At the same time his drive for perfection is so strong that employees who do not meet his demands are faced with blistering verbal attacks that can eventually burn out even the most motivated of people. Jobs pushed his workers to the heights of unethical work conditions. In the late 1980's, two NextStep engineers had been slaving nights and weekends for 15 months to meet an important and impossible deadline for a new state-of-the-art chip. No one had ever designed such a thing before, and the strain was incredible. At a weekend off-site meeting Jobs publicly and viciously berated them before the entire company for not working faster, even after all their effort they put into building the chip. Out of pride they finished the project, but one of them quit soon thereafter. A NextStep employee describes his attitude: "You've been on it a week, and you're supposed to be brilliant. So what have you done? That's why so many people are afraid of him." [Dumaine, 1993, p. 40]

Jobs's drive for perfection often lead him to be ignorant to other people's ideas. One ex-employee recalls how Jobs was demanding that, on principle, he would often reject anyone's work the first time it was shown to him. To cope with this unreasonableness, workers deliberately presented their worst work first, saving their best for a subsequent presentation, when it could have a better chance of satisfying the boss's expectations. Several employees felt Jobs is going through a major personality change and becoming much more of a consensus manager and team player. [Dumaine, 1993, p. 41]

Steve Jobs, a college dropout who experimented with drugs and Eastern religions before turning to computer design was an unlikely candidate to have become the prototype of America's computer industry entrepreneur. The accomplishments Steve Jobs had on the computer industry while at Apple was introducing the personal computer. Jobs was bona fide visionary, who created the personal computer, Apple, in his garage. The Apple changed people's view on operations a computer could perform. From computers performing bean counter operations and federal taxes to executing individual's personal business operations. Jobs lead a hardware revolution by reducing the size of computers to small boxes.

His development of the Macintosh re-introduced Xerox's innovative idea of user-friendly interface using a mouse. The Macintosh used a windows interface which contained picture-like icons representing a function or a program to be executed. The user would use a mouse to move a cursor onto the icon and press a mouse button to execute the function or program. Companies witness the success of the Macintosh's user-friendly interface and copied its style to develop their software. Jobs, in the nineties, will try to lead another revolution in software development for corporate developers to use the OOP paradigm to solve the massive time and money problems it takes to develop software.

What do Americans Eat For Breakfast? - Explore Below....

A typical American breakfast menu will vary from one part of the country to another. However, on a general note, an typical American breakfast comprises eggs, bacon, cereal, baked foods like donuts, muffins, etc. washed down with some coffee, milk or juice.

The first meal of the day, referred to as breakfast is the most one. People across the globe in different cities, nations and continents have different menus for breakfast. Depending on the locally produced crops, the vegetables and produce available in the land, the menu is mostly shaped. As far as the United States is concerned, a typical American breakfast would comprise mainly of hot fuel foods, which means they are foods high in carbohydrates, vitamin and mineral content.

American Breakfast Menu

It's very difficult to zero in on the list of traditional American breakfast foods, however, we have tried to compile some of the commonly had breakfast foods below.

  • Cereal
  • Oatmeal
  • Donuts
  • Bagels
  • Muffins
  • Waffles
  • Pancakes
  • Scrambled Eggs
  • Fried Eggs
  • Omelet
  • Deviled Eggs
  • Bacon
  • Sausages
  • French Toast
  • Orange Juice
  • Coffee
  • Milk
  • Hot Chocolate
  • Hash Browns
  • Potato Salad
  • Toast (with jam, jelly or peanut butter)

A full North American breakfast would comprise eggs, a breakfast meat that would either be bacon, ham, scrapple, steak or sausages, a form of potato like hash browns or fries, toast or baked foods like muffins or bagels, a fruit and coffee. Fruit juice may also be had instead of coffee. In South America, breakfast is mostly light, with just a sandwich washed down with coffee or juice. However, they do have their share of heavy breakfast that is called 'big breakfast' or 'Sunday breakfast'. They tend to replace a few above items by pancakes, biscuits, cinnamon rolls, sweet pastries, grits, etc.

Some Typical American Breakfast Recipes


Also known as flapjacks, griddlecakes or hotcakes in the US, pancakes are popular breakfast foods in the US. The first pancakes are believed to be eaten by the ancient Romans. It was first adapted by the French from China and Nepal by crusaders in the 12th century. The Americans then took the recipe from them and began preparing them. The pancakes can be prepared sweet or savory depending on the extra ingredient added to them like fruits, bacon, cheese, etc. Let's have a look at the recipe:

  • 225 g all purpose flour
  • 2 eggs, beaten
  • 300 ml milk
  • 30 g butter (melted and cooled)
  • 1 tbs baking powder
  • 1 tsp sugar
  • Pinch of salt


In a mixing bowl, add the flour, baking powder, sugar and salt and make a well in its center. Pour in the milk, beaten eggs, milk and melted butter in the well and mix well, till a smooth batter like consistency is obtained. Since it's more convenient to pour the batter onto the pan while frying it, transfer the batter into a jug. Allow the batter to sit for 20- 30 minutes before making the pancakes.

Get the pan on the burner and pour in some batter in the shape of a circle. When the side facing you begins to bubble and blister, flip the pancake. Cook for a minute and then serve after drizzling some glorious golden honey on it. Read more on pancake recipe from scratch.

French Toast

How and where the genesis of French toast took place we do not know. However, when we can eat those lovely eggy breads, who is interested in its origin?
  • 2 slices of white bread
  • 1 egg
  • 1 tsp vanilla extract
  • 1 tsp sugar
  • ¾ cup milk
  • 1½ tsp cinnamon
  • Unsalted butter
  • Pinch of salt


Beat the egg, milk, cinnamon, vanilla and sugar together until the mixture is light and frothy. Place a skillet on the stove and let it warm up. Dunk the bread slice into the frothy egg mixture and allow it to completely soak the egg mixture. Add some butter to the hot pan and place the egg soaked slice of bread onto the pan. Flip after a minute. Fry till both sides are golden brown and serve with any syrup of your choice. Read more on easy French toast.

Hash Browns

Hash browns are typical American breakfast food items seen in North America. They are often fried on a griddle or large common cooktops. They are mostly served along with steak during breakfast.

  • 3 potatoes (peeled)
  • 1½ onion (finely chopped)
  • 3 tbsp olive oil
  • Salt and pepper to taste


Using a grater, grate the peeled potatoes. Wash the potato shreds in some water and drain the water. Using a dry, clean towel, pat the grated potato dry. You can use a potato ricer to remove the moisture and give a crispier texture. Place these shreds into a mixing bowl and add the chopped onions, olive oil, salt and pepper and mix well. Take a skillet and add some butter into it. Dollop this mixture into it. Using a spatula, separate the potato shreds into four sections and fry till the potato becomes golden brown.

These were just three odd recipes of the vast array of American breakfast food items. People in the United States have more of coffee than tea in their meals, and mostly they have coffee all throughout the day.

Used Or New Car Buying Tips - Step By Step Process For New Comers

Take Decisions Before Short Listing Your Cars

Some basic factors that you must decide on before you start looking at cars are as follows:

  • Budget/Price: Your budget is the first thing that you should take into consideration before making a purchase decision. Choose to look at only those used cars that fall into your pre-estimated budget. Sometimes the price quoted may be a few thousand more than what the seller is expecting, so you can select accordingly. In case you are looking at EMI options, then use online resources that help you calculate your monthly EMI based on the amount of loan your budget can handle.
  • Requirements: It is essential that you know what “type” of car you are looking for and what are the basic needs that you want your four-wheeler to fulfill for you. Decide on whether you want a family sedan that fits 4 to 5 easily, a sporty SUV to commute long distances or travel a lot, a small car that fits 4 and gives great mileage and is best for city-driving, and so on. Other than the type of car, it is also important that you decide on whether you are more comfortable with a petrol or diesel engine.
  • Fuel Economy: With fluctuating fuel prices, mileage has become a key concern while making a car purchase decision. Visit various online car portals to find out what the estimated mileage of the type of cars you are looking at is. Assume that the car will give you approximately 2 to 4 km/litre less than the estimated mileage shown on the Internet.

Choosing A Used Car Seller

  • The best method of buying a used car is to search online. Following are some of the best tips to help you decide about who you can buy a used car from:
  • Today, most of the car manufacturers like Maruti Suzuki, Hyundai, and Toyota have their own wings of used car business. You can directly contact the dealers of these manufacturers for your car purchase via the Internet or their contact info on their websites. You can even contact used car dealers that are not associated with any specific brand, but ensure that you always deal with large or known used car dealers.
  • You can browse the Internet for used car (car portals are an ideal place to search and fill out a request form for the type of used cars you are looking for and these portals usually will contact the dealer closest to you and give them your contact details for further interactions.)
  • You can also browse through various used car classifieds in the newspaper and magazines and tick some of the options that you feel is the best. These classifieds have the names and contact numbers of the seller. Most of these sellers are private sellers and, therefore, you can save some amount that is otherwise paid to the broker.

Short-List and Research Your Choice of Used Cars

Once you have decided on your budget and your requirements from the car you want to buy, short-listing the cars that suit you are quite easy. However, to make the best decision and the best buy, it is important that you do a bit of market research. It is not as cumbersome as it sounds, because you can do all your research online since most sellers today prefer the online media rather than print to advertise their cars. This not only saves you time, but also helps you get a closer look at the various cars before you zero in on the one you want to buy.

Here are some of the steps you can follow while you do a market research to short-list your choice of used cars:

  • Check out the various car portals and newspapers to see if they list any car models that will suit the requirements you have decided on.
  • Once you have a list of 8 to 10 different cars that you can choose from, read the information that has been provided about these cars on the site. Check out the photographs and other details that a used car advertised on the Internet usually displays.
  • Read online car reviews of all the different car models that you had chosen.
  • Check if any of your friend or relative owns the various cars of your choice and find out how they rate the car performance and the car service stations.
  • Find out the market value of the cars of your choice, so that you know the approximate range that you can get it for. For market prices, you can contact car manufacturers or use online quote systems to have a fair idea.
  • Don’t just look at one used car and make your judgment. Finalize on three to four options available with different used car sellers before you finalize your purchase.

Check Details of Car History

One of the most important aspects that you need to inquire into after finalizing on the cars you want to buy is to check car history. Some of the factors that you need to look into before making a used car purchase is as follows:

Distance Traveled: Check the distance the car has traveled till date. A petrol car should average a distance of 12000 km/year, while a diesel car should average about 15000 km/year. You can relax these figures by 10% based on the condition and maintenance of the car or the price of the car as quoted. However, if a car has traveled more than these indicated distances on a yearly basis, then it is advisable that you not buy the car. If a car has covered more than 50,000 km in 3 years, then do not purchase the car, unless of course it is available dirt cheap!.

  • Age of the Car: If the car has crossed three years, then don’t give a second thought on buying the car. Used cars that are older than 3 years will cause immense difficulties when you apply for car finance or car insurance, besides the car may not be certified.
  • Number of Car Ownerships: Used car is a good purchase if it is owned by a single owner but if multiple owners have already driven the car, the performance and mileage may be considerably low. Therefore, it is preferable to stick to a car that has a single ownership history.
  • Original Car Papers and Certificates: Check the car insurance papers and vehicle history report. These documents reveal details related to the corresponding car and its road history, such as if the car has been in any accidents or if it has seen any recurring technical faults. Also ensure that the car owner has the original Registration Certificate (RC). An original copy of the vehicle warranty and maintenance certificate is also an essential component that the seller should be able to show you while selling the car.

Evaluate Car Condition

When you are satisfied with the car history, you need to evaluate the condition of the car from both the exterior as well as the interior perspective.

Exterior Checks

  • Inspect the exterior of the car to ensure that it is well-maintained and that any blemishes on the exterior has been considered by the seller while quoting the car price:
  • Check for dents, scratches, and nicks on the car exterior.
  • Check if there are any obvious signs of re-painting or rusting.
  • You also need to check the condition of the tyre. If in case you find any wear and tear on the tyre, check for reasons.
  • Also check the date of manufacturing on the car tyres. If in case the date on the tyre do not match the date of car purchase, inquire about the specific reasons as to why the tyres were replaced.
  • Check if there is any oil leakage in the place where the car is parked. Black or brown stains indicate an oil or transmission fluid leak and purple stain indicates leakage of the transmission fluid.
  • Check the condition of the bonnet. If the car has met with any frontal type of accidents, then there may be some visible signs on the bonnet that indicates a paint job or replacement of parts.

Interior Checks

  • Inspect the following interior aspects of the car:
  • Check the condition of the engine. Any serious frontal accidents usually leave a mark on the engine. If the engine is not the same as indicated in the car documents, then inquire into the reasons for engine change.
  • Check the quality of the steering wheel, brake pedals, and the dashboard.
  • See if the cockpit and instrumentation appeals to you.
  • Check for the quality and look of other car electronics and technologies that the car interiors are equipped with.
  • Check how many new and advanced features the car owner has fitted in the interiors of the car. You can evaluate the car price depending on the same.
  • Check under the rubber lining on the interior of the car door. If the car has received a paint job due to an accident, the owner may not have re-painted the invisible portions of the car.
  • Also check the quality of the car seat covers and other upholstery.

General Checks

  • Apart from the exterior and interior check you also need to check whether the car has been a victim of floods or water logging. In cities like Mumbai where there is heavy rain fall, most of the cars get damaged during monsoon.
  • Look for marks of water lines on the engine and the radiator.
  • Check for presence of moisture on the metal rust under the car seat.
  • Check if the air filters are soaked with debris.

Test Drive the Car

  • After all the checks are complete, your final test for a used car before you decide to purchase it is a test drive of the car. Here are some of the factors that you should consider while taking a test drive:
  • Check the efficiency of the ignition system. The car should start at the first attempt without any problems.
  • Pay attention to the synchronization and smoothness of the steering wheel, brake pedals, clutch, and the gear shifts.
  • Check if there is any kind of unwanted noises or vibrations coming from the car engine or other parts while driving the car at different speeds.
  • Verify whether you get the promised mileage or not.
  • Also check for efficiency of acceleration and deceleration.

Negotiate and Finalize the Deal

  • After evaluating the condition and performance of the used car, if you are satisfied with everything, make a final decision. Here are some of the best tips for negotiating a deal with a used car seller:
  • Give some room for negotiation. As you already know the market price of the car and the maximum amount you are willing to pay, you can start negotiating with the cheapest possible price.
  • Slightly raise the price in accordance to the condition and performance of the car after you have made your first offer.
  • If the seller still does not agree to it, raise the price further keeping in mind the number of components under warranty maintenance and the extra features that the car owner has added to the car.
  • If the seller is not satisfied, make your final offer and stick to it. Your final offer is the price that you think is the right price for the car and is within your budget. If the seller is not agreeable to your final offer, then go to your next car option. However, keep a 10% flexibility of the final offer, if required.
  • Discuss the mode of payment with the seller. It is always advisable to pay through a demand draft. You should avoid making payment through cash.
  • Go through all the legal papers carefully before signing the deal.
  • Be cautious when dealing with legal formalities and make sure that you get the car transferred to your name and complete all RTO formalities before making the final payment.
  • Once the car is in your name, it is always advisable to give it in for servicing, change the car battery, and replenish the engine oil.

Restricted Zones On The Moon (so called no-fly zones) to be enforced by month end

THE PURPOSE: NASA's "recommendations" of no-fly zones are for preserving and protecting Apollo missions' historical sites and artifacts.

No-fly zones will come into effect on the moon for the very first time by the end of this month! Why, even buffer zones that spacecraft may have to avoid will come into existence. The reason: avoiding any spraying of rocket exhaust or dust onto certain historical sites and artifacts on the moon.

The historical sites are of course the Apollo landing sites and artefacts present on the moon. And the “recommendations” are for preserving and protecting these historical sites. There are currently more than three dozen historical sites that preserve the more than four-decade-old remains.

“Apollo 11 and 17 sites [will] remain off-limits, with ground-travel buffers of 75 metres and 225 metres from each respective lunar lander,” states the July 20 guidelines of NASA. Science journal had obtained the guidelines.

No legal binding

According to Science, by the end of this month NASA is expected to come up with a set of “recommendations” for spacecraft and astronauts visiting the “U.S. government property on the moon.” Of course, these recommendations will not be legally binding as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty makes it clear that the lunar surface has no owner.

Despite the lack of ownership, NASA is hopeful that other countries will respect the U.S. sentiments. Incidentally, the restriction list contains more than the historical sites. For instance, the list includes studying discarded food and abandoned astronaut faeces.

Study of bacteria

Though these restrictions may appear preposterous, there are clear scientific compulsions to collect and study them. For example, studying the discarded food will reveal the viability of bacteria on the moon and, if present, how they have mutated and survived after years of exposure to solar radiation.

It is worthwhile to remember that all scientific experiments conducted on board during space travel are of a few days duration and pale in comparison with decades of constant exposure to several stressful lunar conditions/environment.

Similarly, there are other scientific compulsions to study the artefacts left behind on the moon. For instance, any metallic objects would reveal how these materials have degraded after prolonged exposure to solar radiation and other peculiar conditions prevailing on the moon.

What prompted the space agency to act was the Google Lunar X prize for those landing a robot that moves 500 metres and sends images from the moon. Precise landing near the Apollo sites would get them more money.

Very recently, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) captured the sharpest images ever taken from space of the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 landing sites. The paths made when the astronauts explored the lunar surface have been very clearly captured by the images.

According to NASA, at the Apollo 17 site, the tracks laid down by the lunar rover are clearly visible, along with the last foot trails left on the Moon. The images also show where the astronauts placed some of the scientific instruments that provided the first insights into the Moon's environment and interior.

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